Final Exam Study Note

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University of Toronto St. George
Nicholas Terpstra

Consumer Revolution Emulation of the upper members of society is really what brought about the consumer revolution Many started to acquire goods more easily and changed their beliefs about material There was also a change in infrastructure o More roads, posts, houses greater wealth produced by Europeans Tradition: dont need to buy more than you needed to live comfortably New: buy as much as you can because youre able to and because its there After the 1650s people were increasingly able to buy necessities that previously only the elite would have been able to enjoy: mattresses, clothing, linen There was a general dislike from the side of the elites that the poor shouldnt have what they did Consumption as a liberating experience: it was a choice and everyone in society was now making choices about what they would consume Luxury was no necessity and therefore society changed quickly Scientific Revolution Culture A culture of science, developed in Western Europe and gradually spread eastward By the 1660s, letters, newspapers, and periodicals linked European interests to science Above all, the formation of learned associations provided a focal point for the exchange of scientific information and vigorous debates over methodology and findings, expanding the ranks of people interested in science The Royal Society of London for Improving natural Knowledge was formed in 1662 under the patronage of Charles II Its diverse membership, which included merchants, naval officers, and craftsmen, reflected the growing interest in science in England As an interest in scientific theories and discoveries became influential among the educated upper classes, women also wanted to be informed about science Several women assisted their husbands in scientific experiments As well, Latin was increasingly being abandoned as the language of education and scientists published their works in their own vernacular The further one travelled east, the weaker was the impact of the Scientific Revolution Russias distant isolation from Western culture was compounded by the Orthodox Churchs antipathy toward the West and, therefore, opposition to scientific experimentation Uses The Scientific revolution was for the most part a revolution of thought; technological innovations would follow in the future But during the second half of the 17 century, scientific experimentation led to the practical application of some discoveries Thanks to Newton, longitude could now be easily established and ocean tides accurately charted Voyages of discovery, commerce, and conquest to the Americas increased the demand for new navigational instruments Absolute monarchs sought out scientists to produce inventions that would give them commercial and military advantages over their rivals Tsar Peter the Great was convinced by his trip to Western Europe that Russia would have to borrow from the West and was convinced that empirical science, along with the creation of a system of education, would bring progress Religion As scientific discoveries led more people to doubt religious authority that was based on faith alone, points of tension continued to emerge between science and religion There seemed to be a close association between Protestant countries and advances in science, given the precocious role of England and the Netherlands in the emergence of a culture of science The salient role of Protestants in the diffusion of scientific method reflected differences between the theological stance of the Catholic church and the more liberal ethos of the Protestant Reformation Catholic theologians left little room for innovation or experimentation The Protestant emphasis on individual discovery seemed to lead naturally to empiricism Consequences Pushed theology into the background The men and women of science espoused the application of the scientific method to the study of nature and the universe It was but a short step to subjecting society, government, and political thought to similar critical scrutiny It would ultimately help call absolutism into doubt by influencing the philosophe The philosophes belief in the intrinsic value of freedom and their assertion that people should by ruled by law, not rulers, would challenge the very foundations of absolutism The Enlightenment
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