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Entire course study guide for 2009-2010 school year. Exam essay questions were for said year as were the terms. But this covers most if not all important concepts and terms

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Heidi Bohaker

Final Exam HIS263 Part I: Historical Significance (fall term) (30% of exam) Choose 4 of 15 available terms, identify/define the term, and explain its significance. Part II: Historical Significance (winter term) (30% of exam) Choose 4 of 15 available terms, identify/define the term, and explain its significance. Part III: Essay Response (40% of exam) Choose 1 of 3 exam questions to answer. The 3 exam questions will be from the 5 received in last lecture of term. Terms Canadian history to Confederation (1867) 1. First Peoples/First Nations: < 16 century (1500s) ▫ Corn agriculture ▪ *500 Ad First Nations in S. Ontario begin growing corn. Sparking development of agriculturally based societies.* ▪ 2000 yrs ago, directly south of the great lakes farming and sedentary life began to replace hunting & gathering in the Ohio (& later Mississippi valleys). ▪ Agriculture could support larger populations. ▪ Crops initiating in Mexico & Central America played an important role in the Iroquoian shift from hunting gathering to farming. Corn had to be adapted here to the harsher climate and shorter growing season. ▪ Iroquois in what is now Southern Ontario and Southwest Quebecdomesticated high yield strains of tubers & cereals ▪ At the time of first contact 4/5ths of the population’s food was from farming ▪ Women were responsible for planting cultivating & harvesting. Men cleared the land and continued to hunt & fish. ▪ Every 10-15 years populations relocated as soil depleted. ▪ Larger confederacies of first nations could form with the development of agriculture, the Huron alliance of four nations, and the 5-6 nations of Iroquois making up the league of Hodenosaunee. ▫ Wampum ▪ The European name for shells and shell beads used by the Iroquois to pass on traditions and history ▪ These purple and white beads, made from the Quahog clam, were arranged in rows to form a belt, with the specific designs denoting historic events. Because the Iroquois had no written system, the information contained in these designs was often very elaborate and it took trained “readers” - designated elders who memorized the traditions and articles represented on the belts – to reproduce the codified information. ▪ These belts were often used in codifying treaties, and famous wampum belts include the Hiawatha Wampum which represents the original five First Nations within the fnosaunee Confederacy, the spatial arrangements of their territories, and the nature of their roles in the confederacy. ▪ The Two Row Wampum depicts the agreement made by the Confederacy with the Dutch in 1613, and this agreement is the base on which all other agreements between Europeans and First Nations people would be made. ▫ Haudenosaunee Confederacy ▪ The Haudenosaunee is the Iroquois’ own name for themselves. Iroquois is the name given to them by the French. Haudenosaunee means “People of the Longhouse.” The Confederacy is also known as the League of Peace, as it was created to halt constant warfare among the five nations. ▪ They used the metaphor of five longhouses or five fires to represent the five nations of the Confederacy. They were, from west to east, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk. ▪ They were enemies of the Huron and the Algonquin, who allied with the French, because of their rivalry in the fur trade. ▪ Beginning in 1609, the Confederacy engaged in the Beaver Wars with the French and their Iroquoian- speaking Huron allies
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