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HISTORY 263 2011/12 *Bohaker / Penfold* ENTIRE YEAR's LECTURE/TUTORAL Notes - Everything you need to ace the exam

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Bohaker/ Penfold

HIS263 Indigenous Histories to 1500 to PresentHistory of interactions of indigenous people and their descendantsPeoples and Places to 1500 1 Definitions I AboriginalInuitIndianMetis a Has a legal meaningrights II Indian First Nations statusnonstatus a They usually have status under federal legislation III Inuitfar north and boreal forest no central registry IV MetisBlend of Newcomer and Indigenous peopleblend of culture V Indigenousbelong to or coming from a particular place connotes a connection to land2006 11 million aboriginal people 2 Diversities i LanguagesLanguage family have related features 3 will survive ii Cultures a Technologiesi Rethinking stone age technologies ii Local adaptations and specialization 1 People developed waterproof clothing canoes etc snow housesb Subsistence Management Strategiesmaking sure u have enough food to eat i They were sophisticated botanists ii Managing wild populations by manipulating their habitatson the Northwest Coast they byilt calm gardens to create shelter places form clam habitats c The artsExpressive Culture diversity i Each culture has a unique way of expressing their cultureii Significant difference in styles and motifs when compared to the west coast iii Polities a Political Power and Decision Making b From egalitarian to hierarchical c Oral values were highly usedhighly compelling d They relied on the power to persuadeeGiving away wealth was used to create alliance and demonstrate power of leaders f Importance of Kin Ties i They came through your fatherdoodemor Iroquois got it from your Mother iv Commonalitiesa Place of Human Beings within the Cosmos b Extended Defn of Personhood i That includes the probability that other than human beings could be persons c Reciprocity and Balance d Hospitality e Openness to new ideas 3 Dynamic SocietiesCulture Areas ApproachA synchronic model things are frozen in timeTrade and Exchangesnot a synchronic modelWar and Diplomacyas agents of change honour retribution etcobjectives of war were different 4 Demographics1 Population Densitiesestimates 115 mil peopleThe densitiesplaces has not really changed 2 Focus The Northeasti Beothuk MiKmaq Maliseet ii Anishinaabegwinter tended to move into small hunting groups iii The St Lawrence IroquoisQuebecMontreal iv HuronWendat Confederacy v Neutral Confederacygrand river vi Iroquois Confederacy 5 Nations ancestors of the 6 nations in Canadas largest reserve in BrantfordCLASS 2 Visitors from East of the Dawn Europe 15001600 Early IndigenousEuropean InteractionsIf we went back in time we would see people in diverse economies with diverse polities a place where the average person had good shot at long life within socially complex and artistically rich society Around 1500 Europe began to changerise of Europe was dramatico Sea ability o Desire for new trade goods and wealth bec of rapidly growing merchant class o Desire for wealth by rulers for war etc o Catholic church was curious oi 1492 Rethinking First ContactRethinking Columbus o Wanted to find shorter route to sail westPreColumbian Encounters o There were somearchaeological evidence as early as 5000 yrs agoeg Chinese artifactso In Indiacarving of corn o Thus there were some fleeting contacts prior to Columbuso The difference between these encounters is that we dont think that these pre encounters had any long lasting impact that the post 1492 encounters hadThe Norse in Newfoundlando Viking establishmentdidnt last longEuropean Expansion o 1492 marks the beginning of naval expansions period and foundation of permanent colonies tho In 16 centurymost belong to Catholic churcho Government were monarchy and strict social hierarchies o A new social class Merchants had emerged o You needed a license to engage in this overseas trade o 1440 Printing press in Germany60 yrs later20 mil books o 1517 catholic church beginning of reformation o Luthers Protestant reftho 1536 unity of Catholic church Henry 8 broke off to start new sect o 1560 to 1640s theres the catholic counter reformationo They were looking for a new spice route and new resources to maintain the monarchies in warCaboto discovers the grand banks of Newfoundlandcodfish o Dried fish was cheap and reliable source of proteino They salted the fishies ii Fisheries and Fur TradeFishing o Salting fish began in 1800so 200000 tonnes of fish per yearWhaling o Redbay Labrador set up a whaling place o They would use the oil for lamp oil
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