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HIS263Y1 (15)

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University of Toronto St. George
Mc Kim/ Penfold

Jacques Cartier French explorer who in 1534, 1535, and 1541 embarks on extremely significant voyages down the St. Lawrence River Using information brought back by Giovanni de Verrazano in 1524, Cartier arrives in the St. Lawrence River and encountered Aboriginal people Interacts with the Mikmaq (Algonquian) On his 1534 voyage he planted a cross proclaiming the land for France On his 1535 voyage he arrived in a village called Stadacona, home of the king Donacona On his 1541 voyage he set out with the objective of establishing permanent, year- round colony, he travelled freely along the St. Lawrence river, disregarding traditional tribal borders and on this voyage over a quarter of his crew was killed by aboriginals Significance: The descriptions that Cartier and his crew left about their initial interactions with the Mikmaq suggests that they had had previous contact with Europeans (they waved fur on sticks to initiate trade) Vikings He was the first European to map the St. Lawrence River He gave the land the name Canada, after the Iroquois names for the settlements at Stadacona Planting the cross presumed a superiority of Christianity over the aboriginal religions and he staked a claim for France, laying the groundwork for a permanent French presence in North America Interacted and formed friendships with the aboriginals, a key part of French success on the continent Samuel de Champlain Early 17 century de facto Governor of New France Makes his first voyage to the New World in 1603 and by the time died he crossed the Atlantic 24 times He dreamed that one day New France would rival and possibly surpass France itself in terms of population, wealth, and military/political interests His dream rested on the economic factor of exploiting fur stocks and the religious factor of spreading Christianity throughout North America He envisioned large scale missionary activity large-scale conversion As well, he encouraged intermarriage as a way of absorbing the Aboriginal peoples into French culture He helped establish Port Royal and Acadia, the first French settlement in the New World, although they dont choose to make it a long-term base because it was too far from the St. Lawrence He also establishes the trading base of Quebec, which would become a very important point from which France would conduct commerce in the New World Huronia Founded in 1634 by Jean de Brebeuf and his Jesuit associates It was to be a permanent missionary establishment among the Iroquois-speaking Hurons Huronia is an example of the ways in which European religion and disease impacted the fate of the Aboriginal peoples By 1639, only 5 years after its founding, the population had been reduced by half In response, a council of Hurons met to discuss what to do with the Jesuits, but they were eventually allowed to stay because of the Huron communitys reliance on both European manufactured goods and the trade networks that their alliance gave them access to As well, many people in Huronia had been converted Hybridity a hybrid entity which combined both Aboriginal and Christian spirituality Eventually, the Iroquois attack Huronia, which was already weakened by small pox, and is eventually devastated Brebeuf is killed as well Jesuits th The Order of the Jesuits were called to New France in the early 17 century to Christianize and educate the aboriginal population, a job that had formerly been done by the Recollects, who grew frustrated with their lack of success They were sent by Cardinal Richelieu Huronia Significance They were responsible for the education in New France, teaching the Aboriginals not just Christianity but also a Western education including reading and writing They even founded a college for Aboriginal boys, as an institution of higher learning, before the British founded any in their colonies Secondly, the Jesuits wrote yearly reports, called Relations back home to France and thus pose as a valuable historical source for a time that would otherwise be virtually unknown Despite the Jesuits best efforts to Christianize the Native population, the Aboriginals were deeply suspicious of the Jesuits ways, believing that they brought sickness and evil Jean Baptise Colbert and the Royal Takeover of 1663 Jean-Baptiste Colbert served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV Along with Louis XIV, Colbert sought to transform New France and turn it into a French province Colbert worked to export the French governmental structures and economic systems to North America This desire manifested itself into the Royal Takeover of 1663 Prior to the Takeover, New France had three characteristics o French imperial authorities were interested in prompting settlement o Trade, particularly with indigenous peoples o Missionary activity As a result, New France was scattered in its objectives The Royal Takeover of 1663 thus sought to takeover these objectives and consolidate them under the crown Colbert imposed on New France the governmental structure of France itself (with those with the most power being the King and his Sovereign Council composed of the Governor, the Intendants, the Bishops, As well, his economic reforms legitimized the Seigneurial System Fur Trade The Fur Trade is one of the most significant terms in Canadian history because it prevails through Canadian economy and society for centuries From the very beginning, fur was one of the few items could trade with both their homeland and with each other It aided in establishing contact with the Native population, because many settlers preferred to trade for fur rather than trap it themselves These trade agreements were made extremely lucrative by the fact that both the indigenous and the settlers believed to be getting the better deal The trade between the two quickly led to a heavy dependence of the indigenous people on the fur traders, as some of them changed their hunting habits and then needed foodstuffs form the settlers to survive the winters As fur trade changed and men travelled farther to get good furs, they were often away from home months at a time and resided in Native tribes There, they often took indigenous wives According to the article Women in Between by Sylvia Van Kirk, these women often played important roles in both their societies as interpreters and barters These marriages also prompted the rise of a new race, the Metis, meaning mixed blood, who would play a role in the uprising of Riel in the 1870s The fur trade changed after the fall of New France in 1760, with the rise of the HBC and later the North West Company Not until the railways and banking sectors gained importance, along with timber trade with a deforested Europe, did the fur trade truly decline
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