HIS271 Terms.docx

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Erin Black

1. Crop Lien Economy (Crop Lien System) Who: Southern Farmers (Landowners, Sharecroppers, Tenant Farmers) When: 1860s-1920s Where: Southern United States What: Credit system for farmers after civil war, farmers borrowed credit from merchants, they repaid their loans with their harvested product, however, sometimes the product would not be enough to repay the loan and thus they were in debt the next planting season. Significance: Because farmers could not pay back their loans, merchants became more and more influential in the type of crop production. Thus, for a time Cotton was the major (60%) export of the US (1860) 2. Separate but Equal Who: Supreme Court When: 1892 Where: the United States What: It became a legal document in US constitutional Law that allowed the segregation of whites and blacks -> if the services and the circumstances that were provided to each were EQUAL. This was a result of the Plessy Vs. Ferguson case: Plessy a mixed man was riding on a white car when he was asked to move to the coloured car. He did not want to and was arrested. The law suit that followed: Plessy claimed that his 13th and 14th amendment rights were violated. Thus, the court ruled the "Separate but Equal" document. This applied to schools, railway cars, voting rights and drinking fountains. significance: It was significant because it was part of the Jim Crow Laws, which created inferior conditions for blacks in comparison to whites. The separate but equal law was removed only in 1964, thus inferior conditions for blacks lasted for about 70 years 3. Dawes Severalty Act Who: US congress, Sponsored by senator Dawes When: 1887 - 1934 Where: The United States What: This Act granted land to individual natives. The idea was that individual land ownership would help Natives assimilate to American society. Significance: The Act was significant because it undermined the Native way of Life. It could not actually assimilate Natives into American Culture and overtimes, Natives lost land and fell into poverty. 4. Buffalo Bill Cody Who: "William Fredrick "Buffalo Bill" Cody When 1846 - 1917 Where: Southern US, Iowa What: He fought in the American Civil War, he received a medal of honour, he was given the nickname "Buffalo Bill" because he hunted Buffalo. He was most famous for his Wild West Show: which was a re-enactment of the Pony Express, Indian attacks of wagon cars and stagecoach robberies. Significance: He is significant because he created a lasting image of the American West that is seen today in Hollywood. He, himself is depicted in popular culture (books and television shows) 5. Vertical and Horizontal Integration Who: ? When: ? Where: ? What: Horizontal - When a business expands its control over similar businesses (monopoly) Vertical - When a business expands its control over other businesses that are part of its manufacturing process Significance: ? 6. Knights of Labor Who: Skilled and unskilled workers, Blacks and women When established in 1869 Where: Established in Pennsylvania What: Labor organization that wanted 8 hour work days, termination of child labor, equal pay for equal work, graduated income tax Significance: ? 7. The People's Party (Populist's) Who: under James Weaver and James Field When: Established in 1891 Where: Ohio What: Political party aimed at the interests of the people. Platform: government role in welfare, government ownership of transportation and communication, graduated income tax, immigration restriction and shorter work week. Significance: It was significant because the populist party was created at a time where there was limited government control. This party wanted more government control. 8. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Who: President Roosevelt When 1904, in his State of the Union Address Where: the United states What: The corollary states that the US will intervene on behalf of European nations in conflicts between the European nations and Latin American nations. The Monroe doctrine states that if European nations colonize or interfere in states in north and south America -> it would be viewed as acts of aggression Significance: Later presidents cited the collorary in order to intervene in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti and Dominican Republic. The Monroe Doctrine was applied to Latin America during the Cold War because of Cuba’s communist ties with the Soviet Union. 9. Muckracking Who: Reform-minded journalists When: 1900-world War I where: The United States What: It is a writer who writes and publishes truthful reports in order to advocate for reform and change. significance: ? 10. Hull house Who: Established by Jane Addams and Ellen Star When: in 1889 Where: Chicago What: One of the most famous settlement houses. It was a social center for recently arrived European immigrants and offered working-class immigrants educational and cultural programs. Significance: ? 11. Fourteen Points Who: Wilson When: 1918 Where: United States what: It was the most important statement of war aims for WWI. Seven points for territorial adjustments; other points for free-trade, national self determination, reduction in armaments, adjustments of colonial claims, freedom of the seas, need for a League of Nations Significance: It was the ideological cement that held the allies together for the remainder of the war. Set the agenda for the Paris Peace conference. However, not all of the fourteen points were included in the treaty of Versailles. 12. National women’s Party Who: founded by Alice Paul When: 1913 Where: United States What: Fought for women’s rights in the early 20th century -> Particularly the Vote. they looked to make constitutional amendments in order to ensure women suffrage. When women got the vote in 1920 (19th amendment), the National women’s party turned its attention to gender equity (however, opposed by Eleanor Roosevelt) significance: after winning the women’s vote, they wrote 600 pieces of legislator and 300 were passed to ensure women’s suffrage and gender equity 13. Harlem Renaissance Who: African Americans When: 1920's Where: Harlem New York What: Cultural Renaissance... ? Significance: ? 14. Scopes "Monkey" Trial Who: Scopes Vs. The State of Tennessee When: 1925 Where: Tennessee What: Legal case - Scopes was accused of teaching evolutionary theory in a state funded school, which went against the Tennessee Butler Act. The trial was both a theological contest and a conflict between creation and evolutionary theory Significance: Revealed a growing divide in American Christianity -> created two ways of finding the truth, "biblical" and "scientific" 15. Bonus March Who: World War I Veterans When: 1932 Where: Washington What: The Federal government gave war veterans $1000 bonus certificates that were payable after 1945. However, with the depression, many war veterans lost their jobs and asked for the bonus certificates to be cashed in early. they marched into Washington. Congress debated over this but ultimately rejected their demands. some left the capitol but some stayed. This was looked at as a threat to national security. Hoover demanded that the army clear them out. Significance: Biggest public demonstration up till that point. Hoover over estimated the threat (how can someone disrespect war veterans like that?) Hoover campaigned for re-election, but public opinion of him fell. 16. Huey Long Who: American Politician When:1893-1935 Where US (Was the governor of Louisiana) What: Best known for "Share Our Wealth" program which advocated for new wealth redistribution through a wealth tax on corporations and individuals in order to decrease poverty
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