Study Guides (238,486)
Canada (115,176)
History (258)
HIS271Y1 (13)
Erin Black (12)

Essay question ii definitions exam.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Erin Black

Essay question ii definitions 1. Vertical and Horizontal Integration Who: vertical Carnegie’s Steel, Horizontal Rockefeller oil When: mid 1800’s Where: America What: Vertical – A process where and individual or company owns all process from the start to end = vertical intergration. bottom up approach, all different parts of businesses owned by one company. Horizontal - Competing companies are combined under one company. When a business expands its control over similar businesses (monopoly) ex Rockefeller controls 9/10 of oil in us by buying them out and consolidating under his banner Significance: a minority of wealthy men were able to control a majority of the nations wealth and power, by being able to drive up and down the economy In 1890 congress passes Sherman anti-trust act that bands trust cutting out little guy, Nobody rely inforced the act because they see success in the rise of big business, the best thing to do is step back and let it roll on its own st Rockafeller becomes Americas 1 billionare J.P. morgan became the largest steel producer in the world (after buying carnigee steele) with more $ than the US guv Gap between wealthy and poor becomes greater in this period, thus nationalized unions are created ex the knights of labour 2. Knights of Labor Who: Skilled and unskilled workers, Blacks and women When established in 1869 by 1900 they are a million strong Where: Established in Pennsylvania What: Labor organization that wanted shorter (8 hour) work days, termination of child labor, equal pay for women and blacks doing wqual work, greater guv involvement in economy Significance: they became the largest labour union of the 1800s They created the tradition of protest songs They’re down fall paved the way for other unions to follow in their footsteps 3. The People's Party (Populist's) Who: under James Weaver and James Field When: Established in 1892 Where: Ohio Pol Stance: mid left What: came in as a 3 Political party system aimed at the interests of the people. They did not like monopolies belived the the guv did little to stop them. Thus they called for increased government involvement: 1. welfare, 2. government ownership of transportation and communication, 3. income tax, 4. immigration restriction 5. shorter work week Significance: It was significant because the populist party was created at a time where there was limited government control. It did not happen all at once but most of what they petitioned for eventually made its way into law. After the populist party lost their anfluence (looked too similar to socialist) the dem and rep began to be concerned with the problems of the people and Americas international image 4. Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Who: President Roosevelt When 1904, in his State of the Union Address Where: the United states What: (The Monroe doctrine states that if European nations colonize or interfere in states in north and south America -> it would be viewed as acts of aggression.) Theodoor rosevelt changed it to say that we will only interveign if the nations that are not able to remain financially stable Significance: Later presidents cited the collorary in order to intervene into different nations (often latin nations such as: Panama canal, hati, Nickergauga and Dominican republic to name a few All of these nations became indebt to the US $ The Monroe Doctrine was applied to Latin America during the Cold War because of Cuba’s communist ties with the Soviet Union. The US became seen as international police 5. Hull house Who: Established by Jane Addams When: in 1889 Where: Chicago What: One of the most famous settlement houses. It was a social center for recently arrived European immigrants and offered working-class immigrants educational and cultural programs. Significance: at the time thyre were many new immigrants to America, it helped Americanise immigrants to lose their foreign socialist ways 7. Fourteen Points Who: Wilson When: 1918 Where: United States What: It was the most important statement of war aims for WWI. 1. territorial adjustments (held the majority of points 7) 2. Stoppage of colonization 3. peace 4. free-trade 5. reduction in armaments and limitation of navy’s, 6. need for a League of Nations Significance: It held the allies together for the remainder of the war. Set the agenda for the treaty of Versailles conference. However, not all of the fourteen points were included in it the treaty of Versailles, the only one thatq made it was the league of nations which the united states who thought of it did not join 8. National women’s Party Who: founded by Alice Paul When: 1913 Where: United States What: Fought for women’s rights in the early 20th century -> Particularly the Vote. they looked to make constitutional amendments in order to ensure women suffrage. When women got the vote in 1920 (19th amendment), the National women’s party turned its attention to gender equity (however, opposed by Eleanor Roosevelt) significance: after winning the women’s vote, half of their 600 pieces of legislator were passed to ensure women’s suffrage(w right to vote and stand in office) improving gender equity 9. Harlem Renaissance Who: African Americans When: 1920's - 40 Where: Harlem New York What: a blossoming of African American culture, particularly in the creative arts the most influential movement in African American literary history. participants sought to reconceptualize “the Negro” apart from the white (Victorian)stereotypes Significance: the movement laid the groundwork for all later African American literature and consciousness worldwide. Saw NY as the capital of this cultural awakening Contributed to the later wave of rock music Influenced such artist as 1. langston hughes- celebrate stregenth of African Americans and showed all the ways African americans are American 2. Marcus Garvey (universal negro improvement association UNIA) called for black independence and return to the home land (Africa) 10. Bonus March Who: World War I Veterans When: 1932 Where: Washington What: The Federal government gave war veterans $1000 bonus certificates that were payable after 1945. However, with the depression, many war veterans lost their jobs and asked for the bonus certificates to be cashed in early. they marched into Washington. Congress debated over this but ultimately rejected their demands. some left the capitol but some stayed. This was looked at as a threat to national security. Hoover demanded that the army clear them out. Significance: Biggest public demonstration up till that point. Hoover overestimated the threat (how can someone disrespect war veterans like that?) Hoover campaigned for re-election, but public opinion of him fell. 11. Huey Long Who: American Politician When:1893-1935 Where US (Was the governor of Louisiana) What: Best known for "Share Our Wealth" program which advocated for new wealth redistribution through a wealth tax on corporations and individuals in order to decrease poverty and homelessness during the Great Depression. Significance: ? 12. Lend-lease Who: Federal government When: 1941 Where: the United states via Europe What: Law that stated that the US would provide military equipment for the allied nations (UK, USSR, Republic of China, France and others) between 1941 and 1945 Significance: Changed the non-interventionist policy in the US after World War I and made the US internationally involved, increased manufacturing of wartime goods also helped lead the US out of the great depression 13. The Atlantic charter When 1941 Where newfoundland What: defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by the leaders of Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies. To make clear to us people that their principles are not being tarnishged by the lend lease They make “Atlantic charter” The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations. Significance: The Atlantic Charter set goals for the post-war world and inspired many of the international agreements that shaped the world thereafter. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) Looks like US is stating war aims while being a neutral nation In the end does put them on the rout for war, after a U ship was attacked by a german u boat 20. containment Who: George Kennan When: 1946 Where: The United States What: Kennan’s was a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War and American diplomat in Moscow. The main purpose of his "long telegram" was the firm containment of Russian expansive tendencies. He argued that the Soviet regime was inherently expansionist and that its influence had to be "contained" Significance: It is significant because it provided the framework for a series o
More Less

Related notes for HIS271Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.