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All the 35 definitions in paragraph answers for the 2014 EXAM

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Erin Black

HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 1 Ida B. Wells Containment Vertical and Horizontal Integration HUAC Knights of Labor The Beats Populism Strom Thurmond and the Dixiecrats Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine Brown vs. the Board of Education Hull House The War on Poverty The Fourteen Points Birmingham, 1963 Committee on Public Information Malcolm X American Expeditionary Force American Indian Movement National Women’s Party Equal Rights Amendment Harlem Renaissance Gulf of Tonkin Resolution National Origins Act Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Bonus March Tet Offensive The Dust Bowl The American Independent Party Huey Long Watergate Lend Lease Détente The Atlantic Charter Reaganomics Beth's Terms (contributions to terms other than her own- titles are in pink) Ida. B. Wells (active 1880s-1931) • Schoolteacher • One of the earliest civil rights leaders: laid the groundwork for later movements, speaking out at a time, when there was no mass opposition amongst the black community. • Prominent pamphleteer, journalist and speaker, in the name of gender and racial equality. • Challenged segregation decades before Rosa Parks in 1884- when she refused to move from her seat in a train. She brought a suit against the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad Company- the first of its kind in the south, generating tremendous public interest. • Made it her lifelong ambition to get a federal law against lynching. • One of the founding members of the NAACP- but also viewed as one of the ‘radical’ members, later being marginalised from positions within the leadership. • Travelled through the US and Europe with her anti-lynching message. • Became an ardent anti-poverty community activist for Chicago. • Ran for public office in 1930. • Died in 1931, leaving behind a legacy of activism, dedication and hope- truly extraordinary given the time and social context in which they occurred. Did not live to see law against lynching play out  Significance- she had 2 disadvantages of her time- she was black, and she was a woman. Yet she lived her life for the rights of the minorities she belonged to HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 2 Vertical and Horizontal Integration • With industrialisation, technological innovation we see the rise of big businesses. • New systems of business organisations, leading to corporations. • Vertical integration: o When a company expands it business into areas that are at different points, but on the same production path, such as when a manufacturer owns it supplier and distributer. o E.g. Carnegie bought all aspects of the steel industry under his control, ultimately owning all parts of the process: ‘cut the prices, scoop the market, run the mills full.’ o In order to guarantee lower costs and maximise output. o Horizontal integration:  The acquisition of additional business activities that are at the same level of the value chain in similar or different activities.  As they are at the same stage of production, this allows them to share resources at that level.  In order to eliminate competition and ensure profit.  E.g. Rockefeller bought out all his competition, ultimately owning 9/10s of oil production, becoming the first billionaire.  Industrial capitalism is given free reign by the government:  Despite passing the 1890 ShermanAnti-TrustAct 1890 against Carnegie’s Trust, which arguably violated the free trade principle.  Becomes the ruling economic doctrine.  Despite the poor-rich gap increasing.  Increasingly, the poor are the working-class.  These tycoons who practised this form of economics were the living embodiment of theAmerican dream for many.  Exacerbating the rich-poor gap: contradictorily making the American Dream unachievable. Knights of Labor • Knights of Labor: ‘Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor.’ • Established in 1869, reached 28,000 members in 1880, then jumped to 100,000 in 1885. • Mushroomed to nearly 800,000 members in 1886, but its frail organisational structure could not cope: it was abandoned by most of its members, leaving at most 100,000 in 1890. • Created in a period of a crisis of labour: o Labour is increasingly being defined as machine-tending- thus skilled labour is being pushed out. o Workers are paid less and less over time: huge numbers are being paid under the amount needed for subsistence. o Workers are increasingly feeling helpless and exploited, and that local unions are no longer sufficient. HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 3 o One of the first national responses of labourers. Populism • Apolitical philosophy supporting the rights and powers of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite. • The Populist Party (The People’s Party) formed in 1892 around the belief that the existing parties were incapable of, and uninterested in, mitigating the US problems. • Existing problems in the late nineteenth century were formed around the anxieties of modernisation: o Industrialisation led to an unequal distribution of wealth with an increasingly poor population. o Urbanisation and fears of the loss of the pastoral Jeffersonian vision and moral degradation. o Immigration overrunning WASP identity. o The closing of the frontier. o Ageneral period of unrest, depression, ending the US waging war with Spain. o Farmers were in a difficult position by the 1890s: prices on the rise, income going down, cost of living going up. Made worse by the unregulated railroad with unregulated freight- rate differentials. o Populist Party’s platform was based on an economic democracy and directly elected senators. o They ultimately failed, with their platform coming through piecemeal. o Significance:  Precursors to progressivism.  First significant third party.  Coalition of working class- industrial labourers and farmers. Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine • Articulated by Theodore Roosevelt in his State of the Union Address in 1904 after the Venezuela Crisis 1902-03, which had seen European governments beginning to use force to pressure several Latin American coutnries to repay their debts. • The Monroe Doctrine 1823 had warned European nations that the United States would not tolerate further colonisation or puppet monarchs. • Roosevelt extended the Monroe Doctrine: o Nothing in the original Doctrine gave the US power to intervene in Latin American affairs. o Stated that the US would intervene as a last resort to ensure other nations of the West fulfilled their obligations to international creditors and did not violate the rights of the US. o That other nations would not invite ‘foreign aggression to the detriment of the entire body of American nations.’ o The US sees itself as an international policing power. HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 4 o Significance:  The US looking abroad, after spending most of the time looking at domestic developments.  Example of ‘beneficent imperialism.’  Fits in with domestic progressive spirit.  Served in the long term as a justification for US intervention in Latin America. Hull House • Settlement house in Chicago, co-founded in 1889 by JaneAddams and Ellen Gates Star. • Set up following the visitations of a settlement in the UK. • ‘Community of university women’whose main purpose was to provide social and educational opportunities for working-class people. • Part of the Settlement House movement: a community-level example of progressivism. o Belief that environment shapes individuals, rather than inherent genetic moral failings. o An attempt to better the environment, particularly for immigrant working classes. o To get people out of the crowded slums and put them into suburban houses. o To learnAmerican ways and skills. o Part of progressivism: the belief in progress, which can take a variety of forms.  Developments have created societal problems, but belief that improvement was possible- following the crisis of the late nineteenth century.  Collective action and state power can be used.  Improving working conditions.  Americanisation of immigrants.  Regulation of big business.  Moral reform.  By the turn of the 20th Century, there were more than 100 settlement house, growing fourfold by 1910.  Hull House was highly influential, becoming the standard bearer for the movement- some claim it started off social welfare.  As part of the general trend of progressivism: helps shift the idea of the liberal state away from the 19th century ideas of classical liberalism, towards ideas of government engagement and intervention. Progressives held to start to redefine liberalism for the 20th century. Misheal's terms Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points (read Lec on Jan 22nd) - sorry, I get kinda wordy with my answers HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 5 Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points were first outlined in a speech Wilson gave to theAmerican Congress in January 1918. Wilson's Fourteen Points became the basis for a peace programme and it was on the back of the Fourteen Points that Germany and her allies agreed to an armistice in November 1918. His intention was to create a long lasting peace in Europe and with the other nations. His goal with these points was to not blame the entire war on one particular country- namely Germany. When he went to Europe to in the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, the treaty was nowhere similar to his 14 points, and actually went against what he tried to accomplish in the treaty. Germany was happy with the 14 points because the points were not pointing fingers at it as the bad guy of WW1. Wilson’s fear was that if one country was blamed for the entire war, it would only backfire in the future and try to take revenge--- WW2—he was right, but no one in Europe was willing to listen- especially Britain and France, who wanted to assert all agency in the entire treaty- why- cause they won the war. When Wilson went back to The U.S. Congress was really mad at Wilson for not following through the points he had so much confidence in. The American people lost some sort of faith in Wilson after that, but not entirely. Congress even tried to see if the treaty could be re-written- but the damage had already been done and nothing could be done more about it. Wilson’s didn’t even follow through with his last point- cause the U.S did not even become part of the League of Nations that it created. Wilson's 14 Points 1. No more secret agreements ("Open covenants openly arrived at"). 2. Free navigation of all seas. 3. An end to all economic barriers between countries. 4. Countries to reduce weapon numbers. 5. All decisions regarding the colonies should be impartial 6. The German Army is to be removed from Russia. Russia should be left to develop her own political set-up. 7. Belgium should be independent like before the war. 8. France should be fully liberated and allowed to recoverAlsace-Lorraine 9. All Italians are to be allowed to live in Italy. Italy's borders are to be "along clearly recognisable lines of nationality." 10. Self-determination should be allowed for all those living inAustria-Hungary. 11. Self-determination and guarantees of independence should be allowed for the Balkan states. 12. The Turkish people should be governed by the Turkish government. Non-Turks in the old Turkish Empire should govern themselves. 13. An independent Poland should be created which should have access to the sea. 14. League of Nations should be set up to guarantee the political and territorial independence of all states. The Fourteen Points • Statement given on the 8th January 1918 by Woodrow Wilson. • The US had entered the War in 1917 following German submarine warfare. • Declaring that WWI was being fought for a moral cause and calling for post war peace in Europe. o Not merely a new balance of power. HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 6 o Acomprehensive peace settlement. o Laid out a policy of free trade, open agreements, democracy and self- determination. o The last point discussed the creation of a general association of nations to support one another in peace time- League of Nations. o Eight of the points treated specific territorial issues concerning the combatant nations. o Five concerned general principles for a peaceful world: open covenants, freedom of the seas, free trade, reduction of armaments, adjustment of colonial claims based on the principle of self-determinaiton. o Must be remembered, however, that aside from the League of Nations, Wilson didn’t get much else he wanted at the Treaty of Versailles. o Still stands as the most powerful expression of the idealist strain inAmerican democracy. Committee on Public Information- Read Lec on Jan 22nd (America and WW1) The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI, was established primarily to create enthusiasm for the war effort at home. Its goal was to createAmerican patriotism in the country’s participation in WW1. This was established under the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, by which George Creel (why it was also called the Creel Committee) was in charge of. Over just 28 months, fromApril 13, 1917, toAugust 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercutAmerica's war aims. It primarily used the propaganda techniques to accomplish these goals. It even went as far as recruiting minutemen to inspect who was truly 100%American. This act lead to a whole lot of things; finding out who bought war bonds and who didn’t, who was in favor of the war, and if not- why. They were kinda like patriotism inspectors. If you’re not in favor of the War, you’re against whatAmerica believes in regarding the War, and thus not all around American. This created lots of pressure for the pacifists and for people who were not rich enough to buy war bonds. Committee on Public Information • Also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee (George Creel as Chairman). o oPreviously a journalist with years of experience. o Established by Wilson through Executive Order 2594 onApril 13 1917. o Purpose: to influenceAmerican public to support U.S. participating in WWI via a prolonged propaganda campaign.  oNewsprint, posters, radio, telegraph, cable and movies.  o75,000 ‘Four Minute Men’volunteers  Staged events designed for specific ethnic groups and labour groups.  Can you think about it in terms of ‘Americanisation’?  The importance of public opinion. HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 7 American Expeditionary Force (AEF) See lecture on Jan 22nd (America and WW1) This was the Force that goes to Europe, in which 2.8 million men were drafted in WW1. AEF fought in France alongside French and British allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces. President Woodrow Wilson initially planned to give command of theAEF to General Frederick Funston, but after Funston's sudden death, Wilson appointed Major General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing in May 1917 (also leader ofAmerica’s army of Mexico); Pershing remained in command for the entire war. Pershing insisted that American soldiers be well-trained before going to Europe.As a result, few troops arrived before 1918. Out of the 2.8 million troops, approximately 112 000 died and about 200 000 became disabled because of the war. Complete 9 months for mobilization. The main thing is, that when these troops went across the sea- they representedAmerica and all that it stood for (Freedom, Liberty and the Pursuit pf Happiness). Thus, there greatAmerican patriotism and pride that went along with these toops, and hence, “Black Jack” wanted them well prepared to represent the country and not be used merely to fill gaps in the French and British armies, and so he resisted European efforts to have U.S. troops deployed as individual replacements in decimatedAllied units. TheAmerican Independent Party • The best embodiment of the backlash of the right after the rise of 60s liberalism. o Consisted of the USArmed Forces sent to Europe in WWI • Regeneration of the right due to: o oSoutherners who are unsupportive of the civil rights movements. o oThe rise of MiddleAmericans- blue-collar workers who resented social programmes and were horrified by the urban rioting, anti-war movement, feminism, sexual revolution etc. o Founded by George Wallace in 1968- the segregationist Governor ofAlabama. Ran in the 1868 presidential election: National Women’s Party (read Jan 8th and 15th lectures)- I actually could not find this in my notes- but she did talk about women suffrage in these lecs so- reviewing these lecs could help. National Woman’s Party (NWP), formerly (1913–16) Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, American political party that in the early part of the 20th century employed militant methods to fight for an Equal Rights Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. Formed in 1913 as the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, the organization was headed by Alice Paul and Lucy Burns. Its members had been associated with the NationalAmerican Woman SuffrageAssociation (NAWSA), but their insistence that woman suffrage work be concentrated on the federal, rather than state and local, level led to an acrimonious split in 1914. Both a new name and new tactics were adopted in 1916. The reorganized and radicalized National Woman’s Party opted for confrontation and direct action instead of questionnaires and lobbying. Consequently, the NWP became the first group to picket the White House and frequently conducted marches and acts of civil disobedience. After the ratification of the Nineteenth amendment in 1920, the NWP turned its attention to HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 8 eliminating other forms of gender discrimination, principally by advocating passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, which Paul drafted in 1923. The organization regrouped and published the magazine Equal Rights. The publication was directed mostly towards women but also intended to educate men about the benefits of women's suffrage, women's rights and other issues concerning American women. "Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and every place subject to its jurisdiction." [1] The NWP spoke for middle class women, and its agenda was generally opposed by working class women and by the labor unions that represented working class men who feared low-wage women workers would lower the overall pay scale and demean the role of the male breadwinner. Eleanor Roosevelt, an ally of the unions, generally opposed the NWP policies because she believed women needed protection, not equality. [1] Carol, Rebecca, Kristina Myers, & Janet Lindman. "The Equal Rights Amendment". Alice Paul: Feminist, Suffragist and Political Strategist.Alice Paul Institute. Retrieved 24 Jun 2013 Tet Offensive The North Vietnam announces a 7-Day Cease fire to Celebrate Tet, the Vietnamese New Year. But the very morning after (January 31st ), North Vietnam Launches The Tet Offensive (Aseries of coordinated attacks on South Vietnam). It was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched by forces of the Viet Cong and North VietnameseArmy against the forces of South Vietnam, the United States, and their allies. It was a campaign of surprise attacks against military and civilian commands and control centers throughout South Vietnam. Some of the fiercest fighting happened at Hue, near the border of North Vietnam. It was the bloodiest attack so far by North Vietnam, and 1968 marked the bloodiest year forAmerican troops. The initial attacks stunned the US and South Vietnamese armies and caused them to temporarily lose control of several cities. This offensive marked a turning point of the entire war. But the American troops and South Vietnamese soldiers quickly regrouped to beat back the attacks, inflicting massive casualties on communist forces. Significance: Even though it seemed to be a victory for theAmerican side, it was really a strategic victory for North Vietnam, as U.S public opinion greatly started to shift against the war and the beginning of the slow, painfulAmerican withdrawal from the region. Tet also had a physiological impact on theAmerica Soldiers (particularly the Charlie Company- who had been involved with the My Lai massacre in March of that year). Tet offensive is arguably one of the events that had a major influence on the massacre in My Lai that happened just less than a month later, thus increase the U.S sentiments on how different and how wrong of a war it is to be involved in. This resulted I immense pressure for Nixon to take action in ending the war, even if it means losing. Yet, Nixon was not going to allow himself to be the very first president to lose a war- so, it unfortunately lagged on. Détente (Read lecture on March 26th titled, “America in Transition; the 1970s) The word actually means relaxation or release from tension in French. In the case of Nixon and HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 9 the cold war, it means easing of the geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States which began in 1969, as a foreign policy of U.S. It is the name given to a period of improved relations between the United States and the Soviet Union (Also inspired by the help of Henry Kissinger), which is why Prof Black called it the “Thaw in the Cold war”. He made more efforts and cared for Foreign policy than domestic policy. His efforts for good foreign policy led him to be the first president to go to China. Nixon went to China in order to be on good grounds in terms of good trade relations and presenting to theAmerican people be handling a communist country without having to fight, like his embarrassing involvement in Vietnam. By cultivating relationships with other powerful nations—Communist China, Japan, France, Britain, Egypt—the United States could secure its global position. On May 22 Nixon became the first U.S. president to visit Moscow. He and Brezhnev signed seven agreements covering the prevention of accidental military clashes; arms control, as recommended by the recent Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (salt); cooperative research in a variety of areas, including space exploration; and expanded commerce. The salt treaty was approved by Congress later that summer, as was a three-year agreement on the sale of grain to the Soviets. This is so very significant because it presents one of the very first efforts from a U.S president in his role of foreign relations, to the point of traveling to enemy (communist) grounds for the sake of peace and negotiation. Nixon’s skill in foreign relations (excluding his tactics of his leadership in the Vietnam War) saved him from being the worst president in history. Reaganomics (refer to last lecture on April 2nd) Came about in the Reagan revolution which according to Prof Black, “was more about appearance and simplicity of understanding, than actual substance.” Reagan offered a clear alternative to the liberal society- started Reagan’s economics program, called Reaganomics. Reaganomics included 3 things: Tax cuts, cuts in welfare spending- thus unleashing free enterprise, and impact on federal deficit. He capitalized the distrust of votes that; the economy was bad because the taxes were too high, reduces government expenditures, no expansions in benefits and no new social systems, cut taxes for the wealthy and caused the income tax to disappear. This increased the disparities at the end of the 80s. Reaganomics also blamed environmental laws for stopping and industrial and economic growth of the country, causing him to deregulate various things. Significance: Although Reaganomics seemed to be the worst idea to ever happen to U.S economy, it surprisingly did work to improve U.S economy. Of course, it did have its side effects; increasing federal deficit, decreasing government income and spending unimaginable amount in defence. Thus, Reaganomics had little good and more bad to offer in U.S economics, yet it presented the President’s ignorant way of dealing with the economic problem by which the effects are still being felt to this day. Neta's Terms: The Harlem Renaissance 1920s, New York based movement Harlem Renaissance is artistic, a result of many blacks moving to NYC in the great migration. The beginning of a distinctiveAfricanAmerican culture that draws on both African heritage, black historical culture, and contemporary modernAmerican culture. The movement produces painters, musicians, poets.Aaron Douglas is one of the major painters, creates "song of the towers", part of a series reAfrican heritage and black contribution to HIS271Y- TERMS FOR FINAL EXAM 2014 pg. 10 American society. Langston Hughes is the great poet of the Harlem renaissance, writing in celebration ofAfrican Americans and blackness, and showing that they areAmerican, not just black. Incredibly hopeful poetry. Poem "_letAmerica beAmerica again" is about the poor treatment of not only Blacks, but natives, immigrants, poor workers, and having hope that one dayAmerica will live up to its name. Harlem Renaissance holds that black people can change things by changing their image on the eyes of whites, by raising their own self-esteem, showing the world that they are smart, educated, artistic, creative, strong, and ready to be a central part ofAmerican society. Significance: part of the large trend towards empowerment in the 1920s, i.e., the New Woman and the New Negro. Following blackAmericans' contribution to the Great War, they want recognition back home in America. This movement is seen by other black groups as trying to ingratiate to white society, rather than celebrating what is unique and powerful about blackness. Rather than trying to get in with white society, acknowledge that black is separate, i.e. Marcus Garvey and the back to Africa movement. Students for a Democratic Society Officially created in 1960 atAnnArbor, Students for a Democratic Society are a group of students conce
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