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November 28 Midterm Study Notes.docx

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Paul Thompson

November 28 Midterm Study Notes Theme (1): Nature of Chinese Political, Social, and Intellectual Systems in the Imperial Period Them (2): Chinas relations with other peoples, especially nomadic peoples to the North Theme (3): Popular rebellions and folk religion Theme (4): Family and women throughout history *: Primary Source 5000 BCE: No real civilization or anything 3000-2000 BCE: The Lungshan Culture (1), the first stratified, hierarchical society develops 1300 BCE: The Shang Dynasty (1) emerges o First true civilization o With a writing system, social hierarchy, religious practices, system of counting o First Dynasty for which we have textual evidence o Worshipped the Shan Di (1) (upper God) whom the King linked to humanity The Shang captured many prisoners of war from the Qiang (2) people, and sacrificed them and stuff. They would eventually join with the Zhou to overthrow the Shang Typical raised armies rather than maintaining standing ones The Three August Ones (1) are semi to completely apocryphal figures in the textual tradition at the time of the Shang o Fuxi (1) Who wrote on writing and marriage o Shennong (1) Who wrote on agriculture and medicine o Huang Di (1) The Yellow Emperor who supposedly united China and set the example of how to govern, 2697-2597 BCE Five Emperors (1) also preceded Shang, supposedly o Shahao o Zhuanxu o Yao o Shun o Yu the Great who founded the Xia Dynasty (1) who Shihan said made irrigation and also instituted father-son hereditary succession These were followed by Cheng Tang (1) Founder of the Shang Dynasty who was important because he founded the Shang Dynasty and King Wu (1) who would found the Zhou Dynasty (1) Huang Di is mythic ancestor to Chinese people who is the basis for when people say maybe 5000 years of continuous history o Archaeological record disagrees; many cultures before time when one emerges dominant Does Chinese history come from one root people or just a bunch of peoples mixing together until you had a root group? King Zhou (1), the last king of Shang, was really bad o Arrested and imprisoned King Wen of the Zhou o Wen begins gathering army to overthrow him o Killed in the campaign, son King Wu completes campaign and overthrows Shang o Wu (1) Gathers people around including the Duke of Zhou (1) and Jiang Zhi Ya (1) o Jiang gets military rulership of Qi Guo after campaign o Wu succeeds and gets the Mandate of Heaven (1, sort of 2 and 3) The Great Declaration* (1) happens, but probably actually not Wu dies, but while hes alive, Duke of Zhou offers himself in place of him (to die) o Metal-Bound Coffer* (1, 3) hold these seals of divination o Makes everybody, Confucius, love him as icon of virtuous, loyal official New ruling force is Tian (1, 3) who is the bestower of the Mandate of Heaven and shows its status through natural events 1046-771 BCE: The Western Zhou (1) happens o Western capital at Fenghao o Zhou dispenses fiefdoms to all people who assisted conquest o These fiefdoms become the garrisons who compete for power in the Spring and Autumn (1) and Warring States (1) periods o Guo (1) ruled by Dukes (1) 771-476 or 403 BCE: The Spring and Autumn Period o Educated, clerks, scribes, experts on ritual emerge o Their influence would ripple throughout Chinese history Lu Guo granted to Duke of Zhou o Qi Guo granted to Jiang Zhi Ya Barbarian peoples are at this point simply people who were already around when guo set up (2) Eastern Zhou (1) is the half divided into S&A and Warring States Periods Western Zhou regularly attacked by Xianyun, Quanrong (2) barbarians 771 BCE: Quanrong (2) sack Fenghao, and court relocates to Chengzhou (1) (EASTERN ZHOU) Gradually lose power until they have no influence to stop the states from warring Shi and Ru (1, 3) the Confucius class, lose power whenever the guo they serve is absorbed into a larger one o Bearers of tradition of Zhou Dynasty o Interpreted omens from Tiano Advised court people on court stuff Spring and Autumn Period: Number of guo progressively decrease o Dukes begin handing out fiefs themselves, a power once reserved to the Zhou Kings o Zhou lose relevance 453 BCE: Warring States Period (1) begins, Jing Guo is split into three different states The Five Confucian Classics (1, 3) are composed o Han Dynasty later decides they are compiled and edited by Confucius o Yi Jins Book of Changes (1, 3) o Shu Jins Book of Documents (1, 3) o Shi Jins Book of Songs/Oaths (1, 3) o Three Canons of Rites (1, 3) o Tsun Jins Spring and Autumn Annals (1, 3) Guanzi writes Sheperding the People* (1) o Compiled 26 BCE by Han Imperial Librarian o Much later than actual life of Guan Zong o Guan Zong hired by Duke Huang of Qi Guo o Establishes census, regular taxation, strict bureaucratic guidelines, emphasis on meritocracy in state service o Qi Guo begins to look like a real state Guan Zi: Manual on how to rule. Be good ruler or people will scatter away from you or rebe
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