EXAM TERMS! WW2 - HARPER

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Department
History
Course
HIS311Y1
Professor
Chris Pennington
Semester
Winter

Description
The Second World War, 1939-45 William Lyon Mackenzie King - William Lyon Mackenzie King was a Liberal politician who was prime minister of Canada in 1921- 26, 1926-30, and 1935-48 - Leader of the Liberal Party from 1919-48, and prime minister for almost 22 of those years, King was the dominant political figure in an era of major changes - Insisted on Canadian autonomy in relations with Great Britain and contributed to the definition of Dominion status at the 1926 Imperial conference - Had hoped war could be averted through appeasement - He insisted that the Canadian Parliament would decide on Canadas participation if war came, and to make such a decision more palatable, particularly to French Canadians, he promised there would be no conscription for overseas service - Initially pursued a war policy of limited liability, but as the western allies began to fall and as Britain was being attacked during the Battle of Britain, King increasingly shifted away from this policy towards a policy of total war - Dealt with the conscription crisis of 1942-44 very well, appeasing most French Canadians with his reluctance and plebiscite - King did not play a decisive role in the postwar era, preferring a minimal role for the government at home and abroad - He was persuaded to resign as prime minister in 1948 and was succeeded by Louis St. Laurent, and died 2 years later - Significance o Worked hard to keep the country united during the war (conscription crisis) o Limited liability to total war o Canadian autonomy from Britain o Military and economic ties with US (Ogdensburg Agreement and the Hyde Park Declaration) Oscar Skelton - 1878-1941 - Undersecretary of state for external affairs - Liberal democrat and an uncompromising nationalist who believed Canada must take control of its own affairs - Had been a consistent nationalist throughout the 1930s - His suspicion of British wiles and contempt for British policy had often boiled over during the crises that preceded Hitlers invasion of Poland - If he had had his way, Canada would not have gone to war - By 1940 eventually came around and advocated doing as much as possible for Britain Hume Wrong and functional principle - Hume Wrong (1894-1954) was a Canadian diplomat and Canadas ambassador to the United States who is most notable for his coining of the functional principle - Wrong felt that Canada was committing too much to the war and not getting enough influence and power back from Britain in return - Firstly, The principle, I think, is that each member of the Grand Alliance should have a voice proportionate to its contribution to the general war effort. - Secondly, The influence of the various countries should be greatest in connection with those matters in which they are most directly concerned. - Suggests that each country should have power and influence in determining war decisions that is proportionate to its contribution to the general war effort - Basically said that in those areas in which Canada had the resources of a great power food, minerals, air power she should be treated like a great power - Functionalism became the basis of Canadian wartime policy - Combined Food Board Controversy o An example of King trying to implement the functional principle o He sought inclusion in one of the combined boards supervised how resources were used during the war o Canada was a huge supplier of foodstuffs for the allied cause, so King continually hectored the Us and Britain to include Canada on the board - Significance o Shift in Canadian foreign policy the country had matured to the point where they felt it made sense to have a foreign policy that went beyond simply supporting their allies. King adopted this policy o Combined Food Board * limited liability - General attitude towards WWII felt by many Canadians, including William Lyon Mackenzie King at the beginning of the war - Canada should do its part (provide foodstuffs, military equipment, etc.) but not necessarily contribute militarily - Britain felt Canada should be doing more - No conscription o King promised at the beginning of the war that there would be no conscription o He agreed to send a single squadron of volunteers, but no more o Shows that what he really wanted to do was make contributions to the British effort that would be meaningful but wouldnt cost Canadian blood - British Commonwealth Air Training Plan o BCATP was set up by the British in December 1939 o It wasnt feasible for Britain to provide a central place from which the air force could be trained because it was so small and because Britain was liable to be bombed by the Germans o King readily agreed to set it up in Canada because it would be in Canada and because it would cost Canadian money, not blood o King was also willing to foot most of the bill for the BCATP - By 1940 this principle would be abandoned as Canadians became aware how dangerous the war was become and seriously considering the possibility of Britain falling - Significance o Canadas growing sense of autonomy in the post-WWI era o Unwillingness to join the British cause unquestioning o King is aware of English/French Canadian divide over the war * B.C.A.T.P. - The British Commonwealth Air Training Plan was an agreement in which Canada would play the host to a British Commonwealth air training facility, beginning in 1939 - Because Britain was so small and because it was very likely Britain would be bombed by the Germans, it wasnt a good idea to build the training facility there - Canada, on the other hand, was across the ocean and had limitless space, so in 1939 King agreed to allow the British to build it in Canada - This decision was centered around the ample supplies of fuel, wide open spaces suitable for navigation, industrial facilities for the production of trainer aircraft, and the lack of any real threat from Germans or Japanese fighter planes - Furthermore, King was willing to foot most of the bill for the BCATP, and Canada would pay $1.6B of the total $2.2B - The program was an enormous success, training approximately y130,000 air crew from around the Empire, a little under a half of those were Canadian - Significance o Example of Mackenzie Kings limited liability during the first part of the war o It would cost Canadian money, not blood o Active role of Canada in the war effort, without necessarily providing troops Battle of the Atlantic, 1939-45 - The Battle of the Atlantic, which lasted from 1939 until the wars end in 1945, was fought across the entire Atlantic ocean between Allied merchant ships and convoys against German U-boats during the second world war - German U-boats attempting to stop shipment of supplies to Britain (so they cant continue their war effort) - Allied convoys would accompany these merchant ships - By 1941, Germans had sunk about 61.2 million tons, only a third of which could be replaced - By May 1941, however, British cryptographers solved the German naval Enigma code, giving Britain the advantage - Significance o Canada provided around half of the convoy ships, corvettes o New technology in the war, cracking ENIGMA code o Decisive for the war o Forces Canada to produce more ships, by the end of the war Canada has the third largest navy in the world Started the war with 3000 men and 13 sea vessels, ended the war with 90,000 men and nearly 400 sea vessels Ogdensburg Agreement, 1940 - The Ogdensburg Agreement of 1940 was an agreement between Canada and the United States which established that the US would help protect Canada in the event of an attack on North America, and that the two countries would bind together in a joint effort to protect the continent - Signed in June of 1940 between WLM King and Roosevelt at Ogdensburg, NY - Concern that Britain would fall to Germany and that Hitler would then turn his sights on Canada - In addition to transferring its gold reserves to Canada at the beginning of the war, the British government had also prepared a contingency plan to evacuate the Royal family to Canada as well as many critical military and scientific personnel (increased concerns that Germany would eventually target Canada) - Most Canadians supported this agreement as they deemed it necessary not only for security purposes but also to improve relations with the US - Significance o Shift away from limited liability by King o During the Battle of Britain (King and Canada considering what to do if the Axis invades North America) o Shift from military ties with Britain to United States o Established the Permanent Joint Board on Defence Hyde Park Declaration, 1941 - The Hype Park Declaration of
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