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Doris Bergen

Hossbach’s memorandum 1937 <504> - summary of a meeting on November 5, 1937 between German dictator Adolf Hitler and his military and foreign policy leadership where Hitler's future expansionist policies were outlined - Hitler did not want war in 1939 with Britain and France. What he wanted was small wars of plunder to help support Germany's struggling economy (although the Nazis never let on about their financial problems). Hitler wanted a full-scale European war with Britain and France between 1941-1944/5 - In Hitler's view, the German economy had reached such a state of crisis that the only way of stopping a drastic fall in living standards in Germany was to embark on a policy of aggression sooner rather than later to provide sufficient Lebensraum by seizing Austria and Czechoslovakia - Striking change in the Hossbach Memorandum is Hitler's new evaluation of Britain, from the prospective ally of 1928 in the Zweites Buch to the "hate-inspired antagonist" of 1937 unwilling and unable to accept a strong Germany. This change marked a total volte-face in Hitler's view of Britain - The first part of the document minuted Hitler's wish that Germany become an autarchic state, reasoning that a reliance on others makes a state weak. This has been labelled by some historians as a way of preparing Germany for conflict, by ensuring that it was not economically reliant on states with which it could soon be at war. The memorandum's suggestion that certain types of autarchy were not possible can thus be considered reasons for regarding the war as something of a necessity - The second part of the document detailed three 'contingencies' that Hitler would take if certain situations prevailed in Europe, purportedly in order to ensure the security of the Reich. Beyond that, Hitler claimed that two ―hate-inspired antagonists", namely Britain and France, were blocking German foreign policy goals at every turn, and sometime in the next five years or so, Germany would have to achieve autarchy by seizing Eastern Europe to prepare for a possible war with the British and the French - Living space ―Lebensraum‖ - 히틀러는 3 가지 시나리오를 구상했다. 먼저 시간은 독일편이 아니라는 것이었다. 늦어도 1943-1945 년에는 행동에 나서야 한다는 것이었다. 출산율 저하, 생활수준 하락,나치당 지도부의 고령화 때문에, 독일의 생존공간 확보 문제를 늦어도 1943-1945 년까지는 해결해야만 한다는 주장이었다. - 다른 2 개의 시나리오에서 히틀러는 1943-1945 년 이전에 공격에 나서야만 하는 정황을 설명했다. 만약 프랑스가 혼란에 빠질 경우, 프랑스는 독일을 상대로 군사행동을 벌일만한 여력이 없고, 이 경우 독일은 안심하고 체코슬로바키아로 쳐들어 갈 수 있다. 스페인내전이 길어지면, 프랑스와 영국이 이탈리아와 전쟁에 돌입할 가능성이 있다. 그 경우, 독일은 1938 년에라도 체코와 오스트리아를 공격해야 한다. 독일의 일차적 전쟁 목표는 체코슬로바키아와 오스트리아를 함께 격파해서 동쪽에 방어막을 치는 것이다. 히틀러는 영국도 프랑스도 체코슬로바키아를 포기했을지도 모른다고 추측했다. 영국은 독립의 기운이 고조 중인 인도 문제가 있고, 유럽에서의 전쟁 개입을 꺼리는 입장이기 때문에, 영국이 독일과 싸우겠다고 선뜻 나서지 못할 것이라고 히틀러가 주장했다. 프랑스는 영국의 지원없이 나설리가 만무했다. 이탈리아는 체코슬로바키아를 쓸어버리는데 반대하지 않을 것이다. 폴란드는 소련 때문에 독일을 건드릴 여유가 없을 것이다. 소련도 일본 때문에 한눈을 팔 수 없었다. 오스트리아와 체코슬로바키아를 차지하면, 독일 국경이 든든해지고 12 개 사단을 다른 곳에 재배치할 수 있다. 그리고 두 나라에서 3 백만명을 추방하면, 모두 500 만에서 600 만명 분의 식량을 얻을 수 있다는 계산이 나온다. 히틀러는 때가 오면 체코 침공을 전광석화처럼 해치워야 한다는 주장으로 발언을 마무리했다. - 그날 히틀러의 팽창론을 듣고 군지도자들은 경악했을 것이다. 군지도부가 오스트리아와 체코슬로바키아로 언제 어떻게 쳐들어가겠다는 말을 히틀러로부터 들은 것은 이 날이 처음이었다. - 특 히, 블롬베르크,프리치,노이라트가 히틀러의 발언을 듣고 더욱 경악했다. 그들이 걱정한 것은 팽창이라는 목표 자체가 아니었다. 그들이 충격을 받은 것은 그렇게 빨리 무력을 행사하게 될 수도 있다는 사실과 독일이 영국,프랑스와 전쟁에 말려들 위험이 높다는 사실 때문이었다. 그들의 관점에서, 히틀러는 무모하기 짝이 없었다. 독일은 무슨 일이 있어도 영국,프랑스와 전쟁을 해서는 안된다는 것이 그들의 주장이었다. 레더는 이렇게 준비가 안된 상태에서 당장 전쟁을 벌인다는 것은 정신나간 짓이라고 생각했다고 한다 Reichstag Speech (1939) Reichstagsbrand (국회의사당 방화사건) Warsaw Ghetto - Largest of all the Jewish ghettos in Nazi-occupied Europe during World War II. It was established in the Polish capital between October and November 16, 1940, in the territory of the General Government o2 German-occupied Poland, with over 400,000 Jews from the vicinity residing in an area of 3.4 km (1.3 sq mi). From there, at least 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp over the course of two months in the summer of 1942 - The Warsaw Ghetto was established by the German Governor-General Hans Frank on October 16, 1940. Frank ordered Jews in Warsaw and its suburbs rounded up and herded into the Ghetto. At this time, the population in the Ghetto was estimated to be 400,000 people, aboutof the population of Warsaw; however, the size of the [7] Ghetto was about 2of the size of Warsaw. - The construction of the ghetto wall started but the Germans0, closed the Warsaw Ghetto to the outside world on November 16 that year. The wall was typically 3 m (9.8 ft) high and topped with barbed wire. Escapees could be shot on sight. The borders of the ghetto changed many times through the next years. Lodz Ghetto - was the second-largest ghetto (after the Warsaw Ghetto) established for Jews and Roma in German-occupied Poland. Situated in the city of Łódź and originally intended as a temporary gathering point for Jews, the ghetto was transformed into a major industrial centre, providing much needed supplies for Nazi Germany and especially for the German Army. Because of its remarkable productivity, the ghetto managed to survive until August 1944, when the remaining population was transported to Auschwitz and Chełmno extermination camp. It was the last ghetto in Poland to be liquidated Kristallnacht - pogrom (a series of coordinated attacks) against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts ofAustria on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SAparamilitary and civilians - Jews were killed in the attacks, and a further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps. [2Jewish homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the [3] attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers. Over 1,000 synagogues were burned (95 in Vienna alone), and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or damaged - The pretext for the attacks was the assassination of German diplomat Ernst vom Rath by Herschel Grynszpan, a German-born Polish Jew in Paris, France. Kristallnacht was followed by further economic and political persecution of Jews, and is viewed by historians as part of Nazi Germany's broader racial policy, and the beginning of the Final Solution and The Holocaust Einsatzgruppen - SS paramilitary death squads that were responsible for mass killings, typically by shooting - Carried out operations ranging from the murder of a few people to operations which lasted over two or more days, such as the massacres at Babi Yar (33,771 killed in two days) and Rumbula (25,000 killed in two days). The Einsatzgruppen were responsible for the murders of over 1,000,000 people, and they were the first Nazi organizations to commence mass killing of Jews as an organized policy. Chelmno Extermination camp - The camp operated in two periods, from December 8, 1941 to March 1943 during Operation Reinhard, and from June 1944 to January 18, 1945, to kill the Polish Jews of the Łódź Ghetto and the local inhabitants of Warthegau (Reichsgau Wartheland). [1] In between these two periods, modifications were made to the camp's killing procedure - At least 152,000 people were killed in the camp, mainly Poles, Jews from the Łódź Ghetto and the surrounding area, along with Romani from Greater Poland and some [disambiguation needed] Hungarian Jews, Czechs, and Soviet prisoners of war . Most of the victims were killed by the use of gas vans, and the camp served the purpose of early experimentation and development of methods of mass murder, some of which were applied in later phases of The Holocaust. Depending on the source, only two or three people are known to have survived Chełmno extermination camp Madagascar plan - The le[2]rs of Nazi Germany seized on the idea, and Adolf Hitler signed off on it in 1938. In May 1940, Heinrich Himmler, in his Reflections on the Treatment of Peoples of Alien Races in the East, declared: "I hope that the concept of Jews will be completely extinguished through the possibility of a large emigration of all Jews to Africa or some other colony." - Madagascar was the most seriously discussed. Heydrich called the Madagascar Plan a "territorial final solution"; it was a remote location, and the island's unfavorable conditions would hasten deaths. [79]Approved by Hitler in 1938, the resettlement planning was carried out by Eichmann's office, only being abandoned once the mass killing of Jews began in 1941. In retrospect, although futile, this [80] did constitute an important psychological step on the path to the Holocaust. The end of the Madagascar Plan was announced on 10 February 1942. The German Foreign Office was given the official explanation that, due to the war with the Soviet Union, Jews were to be "sent to the east" Von Galen’s sermon - 3 August 1941. In 1941 von Galen gave a string of sermons protesting against Nazi policies on euthanasia, Gestapo terror, forced sterilization and concentration camps - von Galen informed his listeners in a third sermon about the continued desecration of Catholic churches, the closing of convents and monasteries, and the deportation and murder of mentally ill people (who were sent to undisclosed destinations), while a notice was sent to family members stating that the person in question had died. This is murder, he exclaimed, unlawful by divine and German law, a rejection of the laws of God. He informed them that he had forwarded his evidence to the State Attorney. "These are people, our brothers and sisters; maybe their life is unproductive, but productivity is not a justification for killing." If that were indeed a justification for execution, he reasoned, everybody would have to be afraid to even go to a doctor for fear of what might be discovered. The social fabric would be affected. Von Galen then remarked that a regime which can do away with the Fifth Commandment (thou shalt not kill) can destroy the other commandments as well - Of von Galen's remarks, perhaps the most effective was his question asking whether permanently injured German soldiers would fall under the programme as well. A year later, the euthanasia program was still active, but the regime was conducting it in greater secrecy 1935 Nurenberg Law - Prohibited Jews from marrying or having sex with "Aryans" (the Law for the Protection of German Blood and German Honor), stripped German Jews of their citizenship and deprived them of all civil rights. Hitler described the "Blood Law" in particular "the attempt at a legal regulation of a problem, which in the event of further failure would then have through law to be transferred to the final solution of the National Socialist Part." Hitler said that if the "Jewish problem" cannot be solved by these laws, it "must then be handed over by law to the National-Socialist Party for a final solution."[63The "final solution", became the standard Nazi euphemism for the extermination of the Jews. In January 1939, he said in a public speech: "If international-finance Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed once more in plunging the nations into yet another world war, the consequences will not be the Bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation (vernichtung) of the Jewish race in Europe Hitler & The Jewish Question January 30, 1939 For hundreds of years Germany was good enough to receive these elements, although they possessed nothing except infectious political and physical diseases. What they possess today, they have by a very large extent gained at the cost of the less astute German nation by the most reprehensible manipulations - "If international-finance Jewry inside and outside Europe should succeed once more in plunging the nations into yet another world war, the consequences will not be the Bolshevization of the earth and thereby the victory of Jewry, but the annihilation (vernichtung) of the Jewish race in Europe." [64]Footage from this speech was used to conclude the 1940 Nazi propaganda movie The Eternal Jew (Der ewige Jude), whose purpose was to provide a rationale and blueprint for eliminating the Jews from Europe Reichnau Order in 1941 - Politically, von Reichenau was an anti-Semite who equated Jewry with Bolshevism and the perceived Asian threat to Europe. The infamous October 1941 "Reichenau Order" paved the way for mass murder by instructing the officers thus: "In this eastern theatre, the soldier is not only a man fighting in accordance with the rules of the art of war...For this reason the soldier must learn fully to appreciate the necessity for the severe but just retribution that must be meted out to the subhuman species of Jewry...". - Blaskowitz’s Memorandum in 1940 - As a traditional soldier, Blaskowitz kept a firm control on the men under his command in their dealings with civilians, Blaskow
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