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HMB202H1 Final: HMB202

Human Biology
Course Code
Ron Wilson
Study Guide

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Lecture 1:
CRISPR: is a bacterial immune system
o They cure aids with this system
o He wouldn’t use cure but he uses effective treatment
o Muscular dystrophy cured in test-tube the efficacy of the aids treatment.
o We have to look at biology and mental and social implications.
o "the coordinated physiological reactions which maintain most of the steady
states in the body" (Canon, 1929)
o How your cell responds to environment.
o Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and
not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
AFI & BRI in Toronto
o More money you have less chances of type II diabetes
o There are hospitals in the blue area and the subway system so easier
access to things to grocery stores
o More wealthier people live in that area they have less diabetes
o In outlying areas of Toronto, particularly the northwest and east
o Highest diabetes rates
o Least activity-friendly
o Least access to food
o Least available physicians & diabetes education programs
o Most high-riskcommunities
o High income protected against diabetes
o "an observable phenomenon that expresses damage brought by a
pathogen or an internal functional abnormality" (Whitaker, 2006)
o "a state of functional disequilibrium, a change in function or structure that
is considered to be abnormal" (Mulvihill et. al, 2006)
o The disease will always be the end stage i.e. Cancer or tuberculosis end
stage and how it got there like how neoplastic developed.
o The end stage is the actual disease you see the mass the tumor.
o If you have phenomena your chest is completely congested that is the end
o We want to study the mechanism to the end stage
o The end stage is irreversible the pathology
o The mechanism is pathologic reaction is part of normal physiology of body
how you respond to the environment so the pathologic reaction is not
pathologic it is the normal physiology of your body.
Many definition.
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Virtually all disease is a response of cells, tissues, organs and the whole
organism to abnormalities in the environment.
o To understand what a disease is we need to know what the
environmental perturbation (deviation of system) is and how living
organisms respond.
o Thus the “pathologic reaction” or the road to the “end stage” (disease
state) is not pathological at allit is the normal or physiological response
to an environmental perturbation.
Disease is described as the “end stage” and irreversible.
The pathway to end stage can be reversible or irreversible so at some point in
the pathway the fate of the cell is sealed so if you get almost to that stage you
are still reversible if you go past that stage then its irreversible.
We don’t know the timeline when the fate of cell is sealed cus cell can become
cancerous at any time and that is the time we don’t know.
As a disease progresses it becomes more irreversible.
o Etiology or the cause or the nature of the environmental perturbation that
leads to disease.
o As the disease process develops, it has a greater tendency to become
We want full resolution: acute inflammation what happen if you take bacteria and
put it in lung. When it finishes what it does we want to see a full resolution.
Like e.g. paper cut you get scar but you still function how that happen?
If you have irreversible cell damage or injury it can lead to necrosis that is
different from apoptosis.
It is a pattern of tissue death a visual phenomena so in a microscope you see
dead cells its called necrosis and it is very indicative of certain inflammatory
Not all responses are detrimental like during development apoptosis is normal
cus we need it or developing digits.
Response of cell to injury:
o Degenerative:
o Reversible cell injury: Cell can recover
o Irreversible cell injury always leads to cell death; we call these patterns
necrosis and they are any types series of morphological changes that
ensue following cell death. There are other ways cell will adapt to that one
way is neoplasia.
Coagulative necrosis: dead tissue appears firm; structures are
recognizable (faint) they look normal through microscope but they are very
faint somehow the oxygen level reduced to zero and cells die.
Colliquative necrosis: dead tissue appears semi-liquid; no structures are
recognizable.Cells have been disintegrated and are completely different
from normal and looks like a mash you cannot see any cells there.
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Caseous necrosis: dead tissue resembles a soft, friable, whitish-grey
clump; cream cheese. Its an indicative of tuberculosis and is a mass of
dead tissue, dead protein, dead and live bacteria.
We have an increase in cell number and size.
Hypertrophy is increase in cell size so if you’re a lifter increase in cell size is
completely normal
Proliferative or Growth Response:
Hyperplasia increase in cell number. This is perfectly normal
Metaplasia one type of differentiated tissue is replaced by another. For
eg smokers and we see a change in cell type along trachea and
bronchi.Cells change normally to a flat cell because they are better stand
the chemical coat toxins that are absorbed by the specific cell so it’s a
epithelium change from one cell type to other the actual change is normal
but the resulting cell is still not neoplastic so its still normal but they can
down the road be malignant later on.
Dysplasia alteration in size, shape & organization of mature cells.
Anaplasia extreme form of arrested or altered differentiation (seen
mainly in malignant neoplasms)
Neoplasia new growth two categories benign and malignant.
Some cancer cells grow really quick others can grow really slow. Normal
cells have checkpoints but neoplastic cells have no control at all and grow
autonomously it is not rate phenomena but a control phenomena.
Benign: All well differentiated, similar sort of to the normal cell slightly different
Malignant: Level of differentiation makes it complicated.
Neoplasia is a gradient
Degree for differentiation so could be poorly or well differentiated. So some
features like normal cell but for poorly we call that cell neoplastic cell cus it’s the
most extreme forms, so poorest differentiated has the lowest survival rate.
Scenario of Low oxygen condition:
breathing in air and have low oxygen (hypoxia- low oxygen condition or
anoxia complete absence of oxygen within the system)
You need oxygen for atp syntheisis
Which is important for water in kidneys and in liver for fatty acid
metabolism. When you decrease atp you will affect Na/K pump so K
moves out of cell and Na+ water in cell so your cells will have
accumulation of water in cell.
you cell has acumalation of water these cell cannot function normally
in hepatocytes you get acumalation of fat
The vacuoles in cell have water accumulation we don’t want that so no
cells cannot function normally
In liver, the hepatocyte you get an accumulation of fat and why that
happens is because a TO b TO c TO d so if we knock out atp via no
oxygen you get droplets of atp why because when we knocked out atp C
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