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HMB202H1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 27 pages long!)


Department
Human Biology
Course Code
HMB202H1
Professor
Ron Wilson
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSG
HMB202H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 1: Intro to Health and Disease
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- Etiology means the cause or the nature of the environmental perturbation that leads to disease
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- We don't know where along this timeline this irreversible injury occurs
- Irreversible cell injury always leads to cell death
- Necrosis is a pattern of tissue death
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- Metaplasia is "change in form"
- Dysplasia is "malformation"
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- Timeline from the initial stage where oxygen is depleted...
- ...to the degenerative response
- ATP production decreases (no aerobic metabolism)
- Sodium and water move into cell; Potassium moves out of cell (no ATP to drive the Na+/K+ pumps)
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- One of the main functions of the liver is lipid metabolism, so if oxygen is taken away, lipids accumulate in the
cells
- At this stage the condition is reversible if you bring back oxygen
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- Dual blood supply that merges along the liver sinusoids: from the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein that
exits through the central vein> the hepatic vein.
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- Liver acinus model: Under normal conditions the perivenous cells in Zone 3 are no different from cells in Zone 1
and 2, though they receive the least amount of oxygen
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- Diaphragm, main muscle of breathing
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- HYPOXIC CONDITIONS
- cells affected first, show lipid accumulation
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- Humoral (Antibody)
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- a collection of suppurative exudate that has accumulated in a cavity of the tissue
- granulation: budding capillaries> type III collagen> replaced by type I collagen
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Lecture 2: Infectious Microorganisms
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- In general, cell morphology is a poor predictor of other properties of a prokaryotic cell like physiology, ecology,
or phylogeny.
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- UPPER LIMITS TO CELL SIZE: A large cell size may be a mechanism for storing nutrients. For very large cells,
nutrient uptake eventually limits metabolism to the point that the cell is no longer competitive with smaller
cells: Small cells have a higher surface-to-olue atio “/V: V=/π3; “A=π2. The higher S/V ratio supports a
faster rate of nutrient exchange per unit of cell volume=> smaller cells generally grow faster than larger cells and
a given amount of resources will support a larger population of small cells than of large cells=> larger pool of
mutations within population=> greater evolutionary possibilities
- 0.20 to 2.0 µm in diameter
- 2 to 8 µm in length
- spirilla: spiral (twisted)
- LOWER LIMITS TO CELL SIZE:A structure of 0.1µm diameter or less is of insufficient volume to house the
essential components of a free-living cell and structures of 0.15µm are marginal
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- Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a sugar-dense capsule (looks like a halo)
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- Spirochete: tightly coiled bacteria
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- Filamentous bacteria: can be mm in size
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- (Both diplococci and streptococci cause pulmonary pneumonia)
- The cells of many prokaryote species remain together in clusters after cell division: Streptococci form long
chains
- Sarcinae occur in 3-dimensional cubes
- Staphylococci occur in grape-like clusters
- There is staphylococci but there is no staphylobacilli
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- Staphylo: grape-like structure
- Coccus: spherical
- Secretes heat-resistant enterotoxin (=> refrigerate foods)
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- This bacterium duplicates end-on-end
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- Causes food-borne poisoning from uncooked foods e.g. raw chicken
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