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HMB202H1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 14 pages long!)


Department
Human Biology
Course Code
HMB202H1
Professor
Ron Wilson
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSG
HMB202H1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Viral Replication of a Temperate Bacteriophage
Whenever the bacterium reproduces, the prophage is also copied.
Endotoxins
Endotoxins are only released when the bacteria cell dies or during cell division.
Exotoxins
In addition to being classified which type of cells they infect (neurotoxin, enterotoxin,
cytotoxin), they can also be classified based on their structure/function: A-B toxins, toxins that
disrupt membranes, and superantigens.
A-B toxins The B domain binds to a specific receptor (usually a carbohydrate) on the host cell.
The entire exotoxin is then brought inside through endocytosis. Once inside the endosome, the B
domain creates a pore in the endosome which allows the A domain to escape into the cytoplasm
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where it causes its effects (ex. inhibiting protein synthesis or interfering with host cytoskeleton).
This causes death of the cell.
Membrane disrupting toxins They do not enter the cell but instead form pores in the host
plasma membrane. This causes the cell to lyse.
Superantigens These exotoxins stimulate an excessive immune response. First, it causes
proliferation of T cells and then those T cells release excessive amounts of cytokines which
causes symptoms such as fever, inflammation and shock. This could lead to death.
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