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HMB265H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 62 pages long!)


Department
Human Biology
Course Code
HMB265H1
Professor
Maria Papaconstantinou
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
HMB265H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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HMB 265 Lecture 1:
A map:
We inherit alleles or parts of genes from our parents. Scientitists are rying to figure out which genes are
important for which traits. We are trying to find out which mutations are associated with specific traits.
The circles pinpoint the locations on the chromosomes where mutations have been located that are
ioled ith a specific trait. Soe utatios are disease related, soe are’t.
The genomics:
Recently one genome editing technology, CRISPR, is at the forefront of this technology. CRISPR is a
genome editing technology. We first used it in bacteria, and bacteria use it to get rid of foreign gnetic
material. Scientists are planning to use it as a gene editing tool.
Ultimate:
Gene therapy has had some successful applications and it is becoming more successful.
Ethical:
Privacy is still an issue in Canada, but its not an issue in the US.
Genetics:
Theres a strong correlation between genotype and phenotype. The genetics tell us how thry behave and
how they will adapt to a changing environment.
Genetics:
Everything is not in our genes.
A growing:
Diet and lifestyle with respect of T2D have a major impact on the disease.
Diagram:
Some diseases have a stronger genetic component and some have an environmental component. Most
complex diseases fall somewhere in the middle of the spectrum.
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HMB265 Lecture 2:
We can observe:
People were applying genetic techniques like artificial selection. This is picking parents to give rise to the
next generation. Artificial selection is being used to produce specific traits that are important, and this
was being used 10 000 years ago. Its also being used to make plants that produce more food. Merino
sheep are prized for their fine wool.
Moravian:
The ould’t predit if a ated trait ould e passed oto the et geeratio. The foud that the
wool trait would disappear is some generations and reappear in other generations. There were only 2
explanations for this.
Why Moravian:
Bleded iheritae did’t eplai ho siligs look er differet fro eahother or the great
variations of people in diff generations.
What abbot:
Abott proposed that sheep breeders could predict what traits would be passed on if they answeres
these questions:
Gregor:
Gregor began experiments with pees in 1854.
Gregor mendel:
Mendels key to success is that he chose the right model organism and he had the right experimental
approach.
Why pisum:
They could be made so they produce the same traits from generation to generation. You could have
carefully controlled mating so you can control what mates with what. Either or traits are traits that are
easy to trace from generation to generation.
Taking:
The pollen is found in the anthers. When the polen from the anther lands on the stigma, it grows a
pollen tube allowing the fertilized eggs to form which then go o to form a specific pee plant. Cross
fertilization is where you remove the anthers and we transfer the pollen using a paint brush.
Traits:
He observed 7 antagonistic pairs. He first created true breeding lines for each of these traits. \
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