Study notes for lecture 2

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Published on 18 Apr 2011
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Lecture 02: Mendelian genetics for single gene
traits
Organisms resemble their relatives
-What factors drive similarities and differences between relatives?
Pre-Mendelian understanding of genetics
-Individuals with favourable traits chosen for breeding
oAncestors had basic understanding of variable, heritable
traits
-Questions remain
Mendel was different
-Traits individually examined
oVs. entire organism
-Controlled experiments, recording and counting
-Chose apt model organism
oPea plant
Apt genetic model
-Rapidly reproduces
-Easily grown/bred
-Numerous offspring
-Self-fertilizes
oEstablish pure-breeding/inbred lines (genetically
homogenous so same characteristics)
-Possessing discrete variable traits
oV. continuous traits as in complex inheritance
Peas
-Selfing: transferring pollen to stigma of same plant
oRepeated selfing increases homozygous proportion of
offspring
oV. cross-pollination: transfer pollen to another, anther-
less plant
-7 pairs of discrete traits
Dominance
-Trait of antagonistic pair always manifesting in hybrid
oProgeny from cross-pollination
-Independent of parent
oReciprocal crosses show
Monohybrid cross
-Pure-breeding yellow and green peas cross
oF1: yellow peas
oF2: yellow and green peas in 3:1
Recessive trait reappears
Blending, uniparental inheritance disproved
-Conclusions
oBiparental inheritance: both parents contribute hereditary
material
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Document Summary

Individuals with favourable traits chosen for breeding: ancestors had basic understanding of variable, heritable traits. Chose apt model organism: pea plant. Self-fertilizes: establish pure-breeding/inbred lines (genetically homogenous so same characteristics) Possessing discrete variable traits: v. continuous traits as in complex inheritance. Selfing: transferring pollen to stigma of same plant: repeated selfing increases homozygous proportion of offspring, v. cross-pollination: transfer pollen to another, anther- less plant. Trait of antagonistic pair always manifesting in hybrid: progeny from cross-pollination. Pure-breeding yellow and green peas cross: f1: yellow peas, f2: yellow and green peas in 3:1. Conclusions: biparental inheritance: both parents contribute hereditary material www. notesolution. com. Lecture 02: mendelian genetics for single gene traits: inherited traits are dominant (expressed in f1 hybrid) and recessive (silent in f1 hybrid, hereditary factors do not permanently modify each other. Mendel"s explanatory model: yy for pure-breeding yellow pea; yy for green.

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