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Study notes for lecture 2

3 Pages
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Department
Human Biology
Course Code
HMB265H1
Professor
Stephen Wright

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Lecture 02: Mendelian genetics for single gene
traits
Organisms resemble their relatives
-What factors drive similarities and differences between relatives?
Pre-Mendelian understanding of genetics
-Individuals with favourable traits chosen for breeding
oAncestors had basic understanding of variable, heritable
traits
-Questions remain
Mendel was different
-Traits individually examined
oVs. entire organism
-Controlled experiments, recording and counting
-Chose apt model organism
oPea plant
Apt genetic model
-Rapidly reproduces
-Easily grown/bred
-Numerous offspring
-Self-fertilizes
oEstablish pure-breeding/inbred lines (genetically
homogenous so same characteristics)
-Possessing discrete variable traits
oV. continuous traits as in complex inheritance
Peas
-Selfing: transferring pollen to stigma of same plant
oRepeated selfing increases homozygous proportion of
offspring
oV. cross-pollination: transfer pollen to another, anther-
less plant
-7 pairs of discrete traits
Dominance
-Trait of antagonistic pair always manifesting in hybrid
oProgeny from cross-pollination
-Independent of parent
oReciprocal crosses show
Monohybrid cross
-Pure-breeding yellow and green peas cross
oF1: yellow peas
oF2: yellow and green peas in 3:1
Recessive trait reappears
Blending, uniparental inheritance disproved
-Conclusions
oBiparental inheritance: both parents contribute hereditary
material
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Description
Lecture 02: Mendelian genetics for single gene traits Organisms resemble their relatives - What factors drive similarities and differences between relatives? Pre-Mendelian understanding of genetics - Individuals with favourable traits chosen for breeding o Ancestors had basic understanding of variable, heritable traits - Questions remain Mendel was different - Traits individually examined o Vs. entire organism - Controlled experiments, recording and counting - Chose apt model organism o Pea plant Apt genetic model - Rapidly reproduces - Easily grownbred - Numerous offspring - Self-fertilizes o Establish pure-breedinginbred lines (genetically homogenous so same characteristics) - Possessing discrete variable traits o V. continuous traits as in complex inherita
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