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Study notes for lecture 6

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Department
Human Biology
Course Code
HMB265H1
Professor
Stephen Wright

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Lecture 06: Extensions of Mendelian genetics
(Part 2)
Mendelian genetics extended
-Law of segregation still holds
oBut genotype-phenotype relationship modified
oGenotype filtered through pleitropy, penetrance,
espressivity, environment
-Law of independent assortment applicable to multihybrid
crosses
Further chicken crosses
-Cross rose comb and pea comb
oF1 walnut
oCannot self animals, so cross F1 and
oF2 walnut, rose, pea, and single in 9:3:3:1
Fourth phenotype
Walnut is double heterzygote since
parents were inbred
Not monohybrid cross, with 3 phenotypes in
1:2:1
But dihybrid cross, with 2 genes influencing
1 phenotype
Complementation
-Cross purebred white and purebred white
oF1 blue
oF2 blue and white in 9:7
7 = 3 + 3 + 1
2 genes, 2 phenotypes
Blue must be dominant at 2 genes
oMutants (from different genes) for same phenotype
-Cross 2 mutants to recover wild-type in F1
oGet wild-type, genes must be functional
oMutations in both alleles of gene mutant
oMutations in different genes wild-type
Complementation
-Regulatory gene activates downstream gene
oDownstream gene must be functional too
oMutation in regulatory or structural protein will knock
out function of pathway
oCross regulatory-protein mutant and structural-
protein mutant, if recessive
Complementation begets wild-type
-Complementary gene action
Colourless
precursor 1
Regulatory
protein A
A-
Colourless
precursor 2
Regulatory
protein B
B-
Phenotype
Coloured
oIf A is aa, 2 gone no colour
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Description
Lecture 06: Extensions of Mendelian genetics (Part 2) Mendelian genetics extended - Law of segregation still holds o But genotype-phenotype relationship modified o Genotype filtered through pleitropy, penetrance, espressivity, environment - Law of independent assortment applicable to multihybrid crosses Further chicken crosses - Cross rose comb and pea comb o F1 walnut o Cannot self animals, so cross F1 and o F2 walnut, rose, pea, and single in 9:3:3:1 Fourth phenotype Walnut is double heterzygote since parents were inbred Not monohybrid cross, with 3 phenotypes in 1:2:1 But dihybrid cross, with 2 genes influencing 1 phenotype Complementation - Cross purebred white and purebred white o F1 blue o F2 blue and white in 9:7 7 = 3 + 3 + 1 2 genes, 2 phenot
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