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HMB472H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: International Blind Sports Federation, Authentic Assessment, Invisible Disability

Human Biology
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Study Guide

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Introduction to adapted physical activity
What is adapted physical activity
The term physical activity has changed over the years and has begun on different paradigms
(family based, service based, supports based, and empowerment and self-determination)
o Facility based: people with disabilities were usually found in institutions (isolated)
o Service based: veterans returned with injuries needed skills to prepare them for re-
integration into society (school, resources, special classes)
o Support based: inclusion paradigm emerged. Individuals are included in settings with
support staff (teaching aid, peer etc)
o Empowerment and self-determination: individual can make own choices, decisions, and
live independently.
Adapted physical education was introduced (restricted to school-aged children)
APA is an umbrella term that includes education, recreation and sport settings across all ages.
Contemporary adapted physical activity is…
o A cross-disciplinary body of knowledge
o A philosophy and attitude of acceptance of diversity
o A focus on individual differences
o A process of advocacy
o Programming characterized primarily by adaptations of teaching skills and techniques to
accommodate individual motor differences
o A process of promoting independent self-determined physical activity
o “adapted” suggests change, modification, or adjustment of goals, objectives or
o Adaptations that can facilitate physical activity across a range of individual differences.
o “disability” was no longer absolutely necessary in the definition
IFAPA (international federation of adapted physical activity)
o “APA is defined as a cross-disciplinary body of knowledge directed toward the
identification and solution of individual differences in physical activity. It is a service
delivery profession and an academic field of study that supports an attitude of
acceptance of individual differences, advocated access to active lifestyles and sport, and
promotes innovation and cooperative service delivery programs and empowerment
systems. Adapted physical activity includes, but is not limited to, physical education,
sport, recreation, dance and creative arts, nutrition, medicine, and rehabilitation”
(IFAPA, 2004)
Disability almost always communicates about in negative terms
o Dis-ability
o Mal-adjusted
o Dis-order
o De-formity

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o Re-tared, etc
Most terms imply insufficiency, inadequacy, and being less than
Rarely does our language allow us to conceive of disability in more positive or transformative
First person language
The understanding of a disability had been shaped by the medical community emphasizing
physical and mental functioning of the individual
People are grouped according to the etiology (cause or description)
Our society once spoke of people using the “condition” first, such as autistic child or physically
handicapped body
o This approach is no longer used or accepted in the professional and educational setting
Words with dignity (active living alliance for alliance for Canadians with disabilities)
Protect personhood and do not define the person by their disability
The person first and the disability second
Lecture #2
Disability theories and models
Theories of disability
Models of disability provide a structure for understanding the way in which people with
impairments experience disability
o There are two main models that have influenced the way we think about disability
Medical model
Social model
o Medical model
Society’s understanding of disability has been shaped by the medical community
that emphasizes the physical and mental functioning of a person
People with disabilities are grouped by the medical cause and description of
their condition
Focuses in individual pathology and attempts to find ways of preventing,
curing or caring for people with disabilities.
Medicine focuses purely on the body
It fails to recognize cognitive and emotional factors shaping the
disability or illness
Medical model fails to recognize the defects in the environment

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Ex. If a person in a wheelchair is unable to get into a building because of the
steps, the medical model would suggest that this is because of the wheelchair,
rather than the steps. (needs a cure, needs help, is sick, bitter attitude)
Medical approach has led to lack of appreciation of individual differences and
develop programs or treatments based on the “condition” rather than the
Assumption in the medical model- people are sick, require care, need
protection, sympathy, and charity
Because of this…individuals with disabilities can be denied respect, prevented
from experiencing opportunities to succeed
o Central tenets of the medical model
Disability is an organic problem that resides in the body
Medical experts have the power and legitimacy to name and know disability
Diagnosis and taxonomy-disability can be named and categorized according to
strict taxonomic criteria
Empiricism, positivism, objectivity, and determinism
Scientific methods are required in order to diagnosis and treat disability
Scientific inquiry produces the most true and accurate account of
The cause of disability can be reduced to a single variable
Disability can be understood as an objective and quantifiable category,
implying that knowledge itself exists outside of our perception and
apprehension of it
Disability can be cured through medical intervention
Rehabilitation is required in order to restore health
Disability is a negative state and health is a positive state
Medical model general view is that people with disabilities are a result of their
own physical and/or mental impairments and are independent of the
sociocultural, physical, and political environments
o Social model of disability
the social model of disability is a reaction to the dominant medical model
the social model of disability identifies systemic barriers, negative attitudes and
exclusion by society (purposely or inadvertently) that means society is the main
contributory in disabling people
the social model theorists argue that disability does not exist in the body, but,
rather, in the disabling features of social life.
Individuals do not require rehabilitation-rather, rehabilitation of society’s
attitudes towards disability, is required.
Ex. The social model of disability, sees the steps as the disabling barrier. (badly
designed buildings, prejudice attitudes, no parking spaces, inaccessible)
o The social model of disability: barriers in the social and the cultural environment
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