HPS100H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Classical Mechanics, Clinical Trial, Scientific Method


Department
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
HPS100H1
Professor
Hakob Barseghyan
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 14 pages of the document.
Essay Questions:
Essay questions appear to be about 2 ideas: Method employment (change in method)
and Mosaic split. NOTE: ALL OF THE ESSAY QUESTIONS HAVE BEEN ALLOCATED TO THE
FIRST TWO PAGES
1. What causes changes in methods of theory evaluation? Explain the mechanism
of method employment and illustrate by any two examples from the history of
science.
1. Similar Question: How do methods of theory evaluation become
employed? Explain the mechanism of method employment and
illustrate it by any two examples from the history of science.
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/
12$
-.



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 ,

2. Why are some communities tolerant towards anomalies and others not? Explain
the idea of compatibility and illustrate it by any two examples from the history of
science.
"-!.

,(
3445-.
"
"("

6
$(
)*
7("!
''
)(*7"(3445
(8
&)*97
7(3

:###
0#3#
0-.

How does a mosaic split take place? Explain the mechanism of mosaic split and
illustrate it by an example from the history of science.
b. Similar question: What happens when two contradicting theories
simultaneously satisfy the requirements of the employed method?
Illustrate the mechanism by a historical example.
'
/
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
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Review session notes:
Best example: medieval method to artesian method… or the Newtonian to, carteisna
dn Newtonian- although they accepted the same method, they accepted differnet sets
of theories
Current world view:
Placebo effect… deducible from new theory
New contender method: must be deducable from currently accepted theories and
methods
Ø Current method: HD method , WV
Ø And
Changes in method of theory assessment: method of theory assessment: methodsare
critera of assessment: 3rd law: acceptance of new theories
Changes are based on the acceptance of new
Annonly: exception to the laws of scientific change
Anomaly is something different, not a standard change- way we treat those
anolomies is that they are outliners , lets say they all follow a certain line, and the
points are above what is important… exception: slightly different
Don’t have laws to explain those- explained by exterminal factors: not regular in the
mosaic: theyre supposedly rare. Don’t have to acocutn for them
Anomly is 10 ou of millions: statistically it has no emporabcle weight because theres
other factors
A real anomaly: consider a violation of the laws of scientific change an anomaly
The leikokoims case- violated the laws of stallinistic change> change violated the
laws of scientific change and consider that an anomoluy- say its not a raitonal
change in the socviet scientific mosaic- it breaks one of the laws so its invalid
*know year for specific mosaics--- the timelines for each one- know the timeline
cartesisan: 1700-1740
theories and methods with those timelines- dont mix them up
plenism: in 1900s- not true, etc.
theres only 1 real examples of the mosaic split: Newtonian and descartes split.
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