HPS202 Mid Term Prep.pdf


Department
History and Philosophy of Science and Technology
Course Code
HPS202H1
Professor
G.Garbutt
Study Guide
Midterm

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Industrialization
Manufacture before industrialization: The putting out system
Turnpikes and Canals: The transportation system that made the factory possible.
The London Brewers: Industrialization of the brewing industry.
PUTTING OUT SYSTEM
A system of manufacture where raw materials are purchased by a central agent and distributed to a
collection of independent artisans, working in their own homes, to be fashioned into goods. The central
agent pays by the piece and collects the finished product from the artisans to be sold on, generally as
refined material.
PUTTING OUT SYSTEM 2: EXAMPLE
Entrepreneur purchases bails of wool.
Wool is distributed to artisan households in the Cotswolds.
Children card the wool, women spin the wool into thread and men weave it into cloth. (These stages
would not always take place in the same household but in the Cotswolds they generally did.)
Entrepreneur picks up the cloth from the artisan households generally to be sold on to tailors, sail
makers etc.
it is a means of producing a refined material for a further stage of
production.
TURNPIKES AND CANALS
Mid 17th century roads in Britain are poorly maintained and unreliable making transport slow and
dangerous.
Late 17th century sees the development of turnpike companies building reliable all weather roads and
charging tolls to pay for maintenance.
Late 17th-early 18th century sees enlargement of river navigations and development of a canal system.
By 1750 all towns in England, Wales and Scotland, are connected by a reliable road system and canals
connect the major areas of industrial production, sources of raw materials and markets.
EFFECTS OF IMPROVED TRANSPORT
Lowered costs and increased reliability make it cheaper to move raw materials and finished products
around the country.
Introduction of catalogue sales encourage standardization of products.
Increased trade requires increasing work force and makes it increasingly difficult to keep track of raw
materials and prevent embezzlement of materials.

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THE FACTORY
Factory is a new way of organizing labor that offers greater control of production and permits the
scaling up of old technologies and the introduction of new technologies.
Factory embodies the industrial ideals of more, faster cheaper.
PORTER BREWING
How to brew beer and ale
What makes porter such a good industrial product?
Transporting the raw materials.
Scaling up.
Automating.
Ancillary Industries.
THE VAT
Vat storage introduced in 1730s. Replaces the 36 gallon wooden barrel with vats capable of storing
thousands of gallons
Allows for cheaper storage of porter while it ferments
Ale cannot be stored this way because it is more temperature sensitive and the fermentation would
spoil
Large vats become a status symbol and breweries compete to have the largest vats
Vats encourage factory setting because they require brewers to redesign the buildings. Traditional
breweries are no longer big enough to satisfy demand for porter.
LONDON FACTORY BREWING
Porter first brewed in 1722 by Robert Harwood
First factory brewery established in 1748 by Samuel Whitbread. Purpose built building to centralize
production
Make use of the same technologies but scaled up to accommodate massive production
Mechanization of many tasks such as grinding the malt and powering pumps to move beer performed
using animal power. The miller’s dray horse, a particularly large and powerful horse
INTRODUCTION OF THE STEAM ENGINE
Brewers among the first to adopt the Watt steam engine.
1784 4 horse power engine installed at Goodwyn’s and a ten horse power engine at Whitbread’s.
Keeping horses in London more expensive than transporting coal in from the mines.
Watt sets horse power at ~33,000 ft-lb per-minute based onthe power output of the miller’s dray.
Watt’s definition of horsepower refers to how many miller’s dray horses an engine could replace.
ANCILLARY INDUSTRIES
Industrial level production always creates a network of ancillary industries.
Ancillary industries are trades that support or draw from another industry andwould likely not exist
without that other industry. It is a symbiotic system, the central industry relies on the ancillary industries
it creates or supports in order to function profitably in the same way the ancillary industries rely on the
central industry for survival.
Industries supported or created by brewing:
Coppers (barrel makers)
Makers of copper vessels and pumps for moving beer
London Bakeries and whiskey and gin distilleries.
Yeast dryers and merchants

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MAIN POINTS
Transport provides the boost to move to factories
Factory is about centralization and scaling up, new technologies follow the move. (factory is a
technological system)
Factory exists in a network of relations supporting and supported by other industries
Industrialization is about producing more, faster, cheaper.
SUMMARY
Putting out system
Independent artisans working from their own homes
Piece work
Entrepreneur organizes the movement of materials and goods from artisan to artisan as well as
selling the finished product
Transportation
Lowered expenses and increased reliability of transport make it cheaper to centralize labour.
Development of catalogue sales pushes for standardization
Increased trade makes keeping track of materials difficult and increases embezzlement of
materials.
Centralization offers greater control
Factory
Cheap Materials, reduced quality in favor of increased quantity and reduced cost
Scaling up and adapting existing technologies just as important as creating new technologies
Mechanization to reduce skilled labour and keep wages down
Working Class
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