apparatus - indicate the various institutional, physical and administrative mechanisms and knowledge structures, which
enhance and maintain the exercise of power within the social body.
Archaeology - is looking at history as a way of understanding the processes that have led to today.
the arts of existence (life as a work of art) - 'techniques of the self', reflective and voluntary practices by which men set
themselves rules of conduct + seek to transform themselves, to change themselves in their singular being, and to make of
their life carry certain aesthetic values
Begging the question – where the conclusion of an argument is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the premises
binary system - A distinction that is black and white so that things are thought of as only one way or the other.
biopower - is a technology which appeared in the late eighteenth century for managing populations. It incorporates certain
aspects of disciplinary power, managing births, deaths, reproduction and illnesses of a pop
body - an element to be managed in relation to strategies of the economic and social management of populations.
Cognito, ergo sum (Descarte) – if one can think therefore it must exist to do the thinking
Circular cause and consequence – where the consequence of the phenomenon is claimed to be its root cause
Deconstructing – Heidegger's term referred to a process of exploring the categories and concepts that tradition has imposed
on a word, and the history behind them, break down to find oppositions in the actual construction of meaning and values
Determinism- a condition in which all forms of liberty are gradually suppressed
Discipline - mechanism of power which regulates the behaviour of individuals in the social body. This is done by regulating
the organisation of space (architecture etc.), of time (timetables) and people's activity and behaviour (drills, posture,
movement). It is enforced with the aid of complex systems of surveillance; ower is not discipline, rather discipline is simply
one way in which power can be exercised. (used to train the actions of bodies)
Disciplinary society – history, origins + institutions ( prisons, hospitals, asylums, schools and army barracks)
Discourse - material verbal traces left by history, what lang. Means, how we operate under meaning
Dramatic instance –using one example to make an arguement that is false, using a disconnected example (if my uncle had
wore a seatbelt, he would have died therefore seatbelts don’t save lives...)
Epistemology – theory of knowledge, how do we come to know what we know
Ethics -The study of morals, condition for the practice of ethics is freedom, the ability to choose one action
Ethical Maxim - rule of conduct that serves as a ‘standard’ against which behaviour can be measured
Fallacy - is incorrect argumentation in logic resulting in a lack of validity
False dilemma – giving only 2 options or give an option so problematic other is only choice
Freedom - is a practice rather than a goal to be achieved. Knowledge starts with rules and constraints, not freedom. Freedom
is also a condition for the exercise of power.
Gaze - the fact that it is not just the object of knowledge which is constructed but also the knower. Clinical medicine at the
end of the 19 C set much store on visibility - on looking and seeing and on visible symptoms
Governmentality - a particular way of administering populations in modern history within the context of the rise of the idea
of the State, encompass the techniques and procedures which are designed to govern the conduct of both indivs and pops at
every level not just the administrative or political, cognitive ideal/state of mind to watch over Habitus - unconscious system of schemes of perception/thought/appreciation/action
Hermeneutics of suspicion – interpretation of written texts (Biblical) Modern hermeneutics encompasses everything in the
interpretative process including verbal and nonverbal forms of communication as well as prior aspects that affect
communication, such as presuppositions, preunderstandings, the meaning and of language
Heterotopias - a space which is outside everyday social and institutional space (trains, motels and cemeteries)
Hyper/pessimistic activism – constantly problematizing society/institutions/knowledge etc, asking questions. rethinking
Identity -dissolution of identity, rather than its creation or maintenance. He sees identity as a form of subjugation and a way
of exercising power over people and preventing them from moving outside fixed boundaries.
individuals and individualization - is not something that needs to be liberated rather the individual is the closely monitored
product of relations between power and knowledge.
Institutions -a way of freezing particular relations of power so that a certain number of people are advantaged.
Morals - Codes of conduct.
morality and moral systems -a set of values and rules for action which are proposed to individuals and groups by diverse
institutions such as the family, education systems or churches, 'the good' is something that is practised, not discovered.
non-discursive practices - as including 'institutions, political events, economic practices and processes' (p.162). He also
argues that discourse does not underlie all cultural forms. Forms such as art and music are not discursive. He also notes: 'there
is nothing to be gained from describing this autonomous layer of discourses unless one can relate it to other layers, practices,
institutions, social relations, political relations, and so on. It is that relationship which has always intrigued me'.
Norms - Group or societal standards or generally held criteria for acceptable conduct.
normal and the pathological, normalization - contemporary society is a society based on medical notions of the norm,
rather than on legal notions of conformity to codes and the law. Hence criminals need to