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HMB300H1 (5)

Helpful summary for HMB300 midterm or exam

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Human Biology
William Ju

Type of memory Part Condition Mechanism/explanation loss lesioned/affected Late LTP NE Protein synthesis CREB MKP-1 Inhibits CREB PKMZ alzheimer PKMZ accumulates in neurofibrillary tangles Amyloid B protein impairs hippocampal LTP Entorhinal cortex EC EC is damaged in Alzheimer (repetitive, incremental learning) ZIP Blocks long term memory by blocking PKMZ Consolidation CAMK4 Upregulated during sleep from Calcineurin STMLTM ZIF268 Upregulated in REM SWS Depression: Impaired memory low serotonin SWS – dominated by serotonergic system of raphe nuclei Cholinesterase Block consolidation inhibitors SWS – need low cortisol, low acerylcholine (hippo feedback to cortex needs to be activated for consolidation) Propanolol Beta blocker – antistress LTP enhanced Phosphorylated By CAMK2 Dissociates from sysnapsin I membrane – allowing more vesicle release of NTs  activates Ras (bigger brains) 1 Shock therapy Increases NTs – long lasting Activation of Bromocriptine Causes glutamate release. dopamine within (DA agonist) Glucocorticoids decrease hippo dopamine Cholinesterase Acetylcholine Acetylcholine levels too inhibitors agonists low in alzheimer and demensia Prozac (SSRIs) block serotonin reuptake – increase level at synapse TCAs (tricyclic block reuptake of NE antidepressants) and/or serotonin Reserpine Blocks reuptake of dopamine + NE MAOs Chronically low NT levels inhibitors  compensatory upregulation / increased sensitivity of post synaptic receptors  more NTs are bound at receptors – decrease in reuptake and transporter binding Adderall Amphetamine – binds to monoamine transporters – increases noradrenergic activity / neuronal signal SRC kinase NMDA agonist CAMK2 Increases: excocytosis of receptors, psd/spine head size/post synaptic density, and trafficking of receptors… + activates retrograde messenger (increases vesicle number presynaptically / high prob of release through PKC 2 pathway) LTP reduced Inhibition of CAMK2 Lower levels of Depression Glucocorticoids neurotransmitters CUS model downregulates levels of NTs Injection of Number of glucocorticoids Glucocorticoid/cortisol receptors in HPA axis reduced NT transporter gene Less NT Deletion of a repeat  short allele amount in less protein being made (polymorphism – system (not shorter protein). mutation in VNTR Stress + shorter allele – region of promotor) deacrease in number of transporters – resulting in lower amount of NT in system Blocked Upregulation of MKP-1 inhibits CREB / Neurogenesis MKP-1 dephosphorylates ERK1/2 – localized in dentate gyrus DG and CA1 x-irradiation increased HPA Scopolamine axis activity (antidepressant? More of a sleep hallucinogen) deprivation Anti- Blocks muscarinic cholinergic receptors (inhibitory) – effect prevents activation of medial temporal lobe for novel stimuli during spatial memory in the hippo – mimics dementia memory impairment Ketamine NMDAR Anesthesiac/sedative – antagonist psychoactive –lowers pain – acute amount can increase BDNF 3 Propanolol Beta-blocker / reduces Be able to reshape sympathetic memory symotoms Can’t make new Medial temporal lobe memories: TGA transient global amnesia Anterograde Medial thalamus B1 critical Lesions give korsakoff’s amnesia Retrosplenial cortex Part of cingulated cortex Fear conditioning amygdala T-maze (escape Increased CREB odour) expression following auditory fear training in lateral amygdale Barnes maze Open round diz with drop hole Contextual fear (shock box) Inhibitory 2 chambers, upper lighted avoidance and lower dark – receive model shock when step down Electrical Elicits fear and anxiety – stimulation of abnormal EEG activity amugdala in with paranoia humans Hippocampal Retrieval of new dependent experiences Spatial learning Morrison water Shows NMDA receptors maze task are important for spatial
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