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Midterm

IMM250H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Romaine Lettuce, Edward Jenner, Adaptive Immune System


Department
Immunology
Course Code
IMM250H1
Professor
Dana Philpott
Study Guide
Midterm

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Lecture 1 - general overview of immune system
Immune system
- System of tissues, cells, soluble products
- Recognize, attack, destroy foreign entities that can endanger our health
Pathogens from small to large
- Virus
- Influenza
- Bacterium
- Saphoccolus
- Fungus
- Eukaryote
- Candida
- Protozoan parasites
- 2 or more hosts
- Malaria
- Transmitted by mosquitos to humans
- Have to adapt to both types of hosts
- Multicellular paracites
- Can be very big
- Like tapeworm
Recognition and response to threats
1. Entry of pathogen
2. Recognition
a. Challenge: variation in pathogens
b. Different protein structure
c. Can mutate / evolve quickly
i. Ex: HIV AIDS
3. Response
a. Challenge: pathogens give out toxins quickly
i. Ex; e.coli in romaine lettuce
ii. E.coli in gut can reach more than 108 in 12-18 hours
iii. UTI = more than 105 bacteria/ml
iv. Diphtheria bacteria can make 5000 toxins/hr
b. Infection can be anywhere in body - immune system needs to survey
everything
4. Return to resting
a. Risk of immune induced disease
i. immunopathology
b. Want to go back to resting state
c. Collateral damage caused by whatever body is doing to try to get rid of
disease
Mechanisms against infection
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- Physical barriers
- Acidic stomach
- Mucous membranes
- Immediate effect
- Innate cells and soluble factors
- Innate immunity
- Already there
- Quick
- First step
- Adaptive cells and antibodies
- Adaptive immunity
- After infection → recruited to site of infection
- Memory cells
- Effective in days - week
- Host integrity immunity
First concept of immunity in the context of disease
- Peloponnesian war between sparta and athens - 430 BC
- Spartas victory was partly because of an illness in the athenian army
- Thucydides
- Ancient greek historian
- Made connection between those that recovered from their illnesses and their
resistance to secondary infection
Small pox
- Variola major virus
- Only affected humans - not animals
- Small fluid filled vesicles on skin
- Death
- Scarring
- Blindness
- Killed ⅓ of european population in 1700s
- In india in 1000 BC and ancient egypt and china
- Brought to mexico by spanish colonists
- 1776: smallpox outbreak was an important factor in the american defeat in the battle
of quebec
The royal experiment
- 1700s europe - 400,000 deaths per year from smallpox
- Variolation
- Started in 1000 AD in china
- Inoculation of someone with material from smallpox scab to produce immunity
- 1721
- Lady mary mortley
- Trial of variolation with prisoners and orphans
- Mildly ill but survived
- Then it became popular
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- But still dangerous
- Use or virulent strains → spread of disease and death (1-2% of cases
vs 20-50% who died from getting disease naturally
- Last case of smallpox in 1977
- WHO: eradicated from earth in 1980
- Because no animal reservoir
- Exists in labs in atlanta and russia in small quantities
Edward Jenner - Protective Immunity - Vaccination
- His observations
- Milkmaids didnt get smallpox
- They were exposed to cowpox when they milked the cows
- Cowpox is a less virulent relative of smallpox
- Does cowpox give protective immunity against smallpox?
- 1796
- Jenner inoculated young boy - James - with pus from cowpox from
milkmaid’s blisters
- Boy only had a fever
- Then boy was exposed to variolation
- Did not develop symptoms
- So James had acquired immunity via cowpox inoculation
Understanding of mechanisms
- 1800s - first successful immunization - smallpox
- But still don't know enough about germs or infectious disease
- No understanding of immune response
- No progress in immunization against other disease
- Leeuwenhoek
- Discovered microbes
- They cause infectious disease
Germ theory of disease - 1850-1920
- Pasteur, koch, and others
- Isolate and characterize organisms (pure cultures) that could only be seen under a
microscope
- Microbes
- Organisms too small to be seen by the eye
- Cause specific diseases
- Pathogens
- Ex; anthrax and tuberculosis are caused by bacteria
- Koch designed elaborate inoculation studies using mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs,
frogs, and birds.
- He discovered that inoculating a mouse with blood from a sheep that had died
of anthrax caused the mouse to die the following day.
- At autopsy, rod-shaped structures were present in the blood, lymph nodes,
and spleen.
- Inoculation of a second mouse with splenic blood from the first mouse
produced the same result.
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