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Final

IMM250H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Al-Razi, Humoral Immunity, Variolation


Department
Immunology
Course Code
IMM250H1
Professor
Dana Philpott
Study Guide
Final

Page:
of 4
Lecture ONE: THE HISTORY OF IMMUNOLOGY
the black plague
Æthought to be spread by trade routes; worsened by migrations
Ærats had fleas; fleas carried the Yersinia pestis bacteria that caused the plague
(cats ZHUHVHHQDVHYLOZKLFKGLGWKHOSEHFDXVH\RXQHHGHGFDWVWRJHWULGRIWKHUDWV
::farmers were hit, they cut off food supplies causing starvation
::Mongolian Empire collapsed in Central Asia
::superstitious views dominated, Jews were persecuted
::civic services shut down
::peasants were taxed more leading to the peasant revolt in 1371
::education and architecture were put on hold
Æsurvivors had an immunological advantage ± maybe beneficial mutations
Æthe survivors also benefitted from greater resources ± leading to the Renaissance
::Renaissance could also be attributed to the disillusionment of the church or the collapse of feudalism
*immunity: the quality or state of being immune; a condition of being able to resist a particular disease; that which confers protection against disease
::first seen in 2000 BC: The Babylon Epic of Gilgamesh had accounts of pestilence and disease
*variolation: inoculating someone with the virus of smallpox to induce the disease
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE PROGRESS OF IMMUNOLOGY
Person
Contribution to Science
Thucydides
- 430 B.C.
- VDZWKDWVRPHSHRSOHZHUHLQIHFWHGZLWKGLVHDVHEXWWKH\VXUYLYHGDQGZHUHQ¶WLQIHFWHGDJDLQ LPPXQH
- GLGQ¶WNQRZZKDWFDXVHGWKHdisease outbreak, while elders believed it was a supernatural force ± the
Gods wanted it ± KHGLGQ¶WEHOLHYHWKHVDPH
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (Ar-Razi)
- Persian physician and alchemist
- died in 930 A.D.
- first to use humoralism (disease treatment is based on the imbalance of humours ± melancholic, choleric,
phlegmatic, sanguine ± ZKLFKH[SODLQZK\VRPHJHWVLFNDQGRWKHUVGRQ¶WWRGLVWLQJXLVKRQHW\SHRI
disease from another
- first to diagnose smallpox versus measles = different diseases are caused by different microorganisms
- recognized epidemic force of smallpox
- first to describe allergic asthma
- first to understand fever is a mechanism for fighting infection
Avicenna
- Persian philosopher and physician
- died in 1037 A.D.
- father of modern medicine
- wrote The Canon of Medicine
www.notesolution.com
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE PROGRESS OF IMMUNOLOGY
Person
Contribution to Science
$YLFHQQDFRQWG
- ::how to run a clinical trial
::experimental medicine
::evidence-based medicine
::contagious nature of infectious diseases
::acquired immunity
Girolamo Fracastoro
- suggested contagious particles transmitted diseases even over long distances
- wrongly thought immunity to measles conferred immunity to smallpox
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
- 1717, learned variolation in Constantinople, had several prisoner and abandoned children inoculated (had
smallpox inserted under their skin); when observed none contracted the disease, deemed the procedure
safe
- she had herself and many other members of the Royal Family inoculated, making it fashionable in Europe
Edward Jenner, Sarah Nelmes, James Phipps
- noticed milk maids rarely had smallpox
- knew smallpox was carried by cows and milk maids had blisters from milking the cows, observed the pox
IURPWKHEOLVWHUVZHUHQWDV virulent as actual small pox
- LQRFXODWHG-DPHV3KLSSVZLWKPDWHULDOIURPWKHPLONPDLG6DUDK1HOPHVEOLVWHUV
- James Phipps developed a slight fever but nothing more
- Phipps was exposed to variolation, no symptoms were observed suggesting he had acquired immunity
Charles Chamberlain
- 3DVWHXUVDVVLVWDQW
- was supposed to LQRFXODWHFKLFNHQVZLWKFKLFNHQFKROHUDEXWGLGQ¶WDQGZHQWRQYDFDWLRQ
- ZKHQKHFDPHEDFNIURPYDFDWLRQZDVLQRFXODWHGWKHFKLFNHQVZLWKFKLFNHQFKROHUDEXWWKH\GLGQWJHW
sick
Louis Pasteur
- attenuated germ cultures
- noticed that something had happened during the vacation in the cultures that made the chicken cholera less
virulent
- determined that attenuated chicken cholera cultures could induce acquired immunity in chickens to
virulent cholera
- this discovery was extended to cattle anthrax and rabies
Joseph Meister
- bit by rabid dog in Germany and was taken to France to get rabies vaccine
- the first person to receive the rabies vaccine, was completely cured
Robert Koch
- implemented postulates for how microorganisms mediate disease
1) microorganism must be found in organisms suffering from the disease, but not in healthy people
2) microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and cultured
3) cultured microorganism must cause a disease in healthy organisms when infected with it
4) microorganism must be re-isolated from the diseased host and identified as identical to the original
- if all the postulates were met by the microorganism, it was the causal agent
- observed DTH (delayed hyper-sensitivity) where an animal previously infected with TB is re-infected
intra-cutaneously , a local inflammatory reaction marked by necrotic lesions will develop rapidly and heal
quickly
www.notesolution.com
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE PROGRESS OF IMMUNOLOGY
Person
Contribution to Science
'DYLG9HWWHU³%XEEOH%R\´
- publicized example of the consequences of having NO immune system
severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID)
Ernst Haeckel
- zoologist and embryologist
- believed cells were also capable of phagocytosis as he observed, in the evolution of cells *gastration: cells
absorb other cells
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov
- discovered phagocytosis after experimenting with starfish larvae
- pushed a rose thorn into a starfish larva, observed phagocytic cells rapidly migrating to, and clustering
around the thorn
- theory of cellular immunology
::the idea that cells in your body attack microbes/invading agents through ingestion
Emil Adolf von Behring
- developed serum-based therapy for Diphtheria and Tetanus
- created humoral immunity
::in the blood there are cell-free compounds ± antitoxins ± that neutralizes microbes
(antitoxins are actually cell-free antibodies that neutralize toxins)
Paul Ehrlich
- side chain theory
::antibodies are naturally occurring macromolecules within the body whose specificity for antigen and
complement depends on the presence of certain stereochemical configurations and complimentary
analogous structures, permitting specific interactions
- discovered the mast cells
- discovered that antitoxins are specific for the determinant on the surface of a microbe ± one antitoxin per
microbe
Landsteiner
- discovered human blood groups
- found that transfer of serum has no effect on the sensitivity response (observed by Koch) but the transfer
of leukocytes did
Sir Peter Medawar
- theory for cellular immunology and the discrimination of self/non-self
::graft vs. host
- involved in transplant research during WWII
- investigated possible improvements on skin grafts
- allowed for focus in 1949 when BURNET advanced the hypothesis that during embryonic life, cells
gradually acquire the ability to distinguish between their own tissue substances and unwanted foreign
material
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
- clonal selection theory
::each lymphocyte bears on its surface specific immunoglobulins reflecting the specificity of the antibody
that will be synthesized once the cell is activated by an antigen (antigen serves as a selective stimulus
causing preferential proliferation and differentiation of the clones that have receptors for that antigen
- proposed the theory tolerance to self-antigens ± proved experimentally by Medawar by engrafting spleen
cells into neonatal mice
www.notesolution.com