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Final

IMM250H1 Study Guide - Final Guide: Muhammad Ibn Zakariya Al-Razi, Humoral Immunity, Variolation


Department
Immunology
Course Code
IMM250H1
Professor
Dana Philpott
Study Guide
Final

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Lecture ONE: THE HISTORY OF IMMUNOLOGY
the black plague
Æthought to be spread by trade routes; worsened by migrations
Ærats had fleas; fleas carried the Yersinia pestis bacteria that caused the plague
(cats ZHUHVHHQDVHYLOZKLFKGLGWKHOSEHFDXVH\RXQHHGHGFDWVWRJHWULGRIWKHUDWV
::farmers were hit, they cut off food supplies causing starvation
::Mongolian Empire collapsed in Central Asia
::superstitious views dominated, Jews were persecuted
::civic services shut down
::peasants were taxed more leading to the peasant revolt in 1371
::education and architecture were put on hold
Æsurvivors had an immunological advantage ± maybe beneficial mutations
Æthe survivors also benefitted from greater resources ± leading to the Renaissance
::Renaissance could also be attributed to the disillusionment of the church or the collapse of feudalism
*immunity: the quality or state of being immune; a condition of being able to resist a particular disease; that which confers protection against disease
::first seen in 2000 BC: The Babylon Epic of Gilgamesh had accounts of pestilence and disease
*variolation: inoculating someone with the virus of smallpox to induce the disease
IMPORTANT PEOPLE IN THE PROGRESS OF IMMUNOLOGY
Person
Contribution to Science
Thucydides
- 430 B.C.
- VDZWKDWVRPHSHRSOHZHUHLQIHFWHGZLWKGLVHDVHEXWWKH\VXUYLYHGDQGZHUHQ¶WLQIHFWHGDJDLQ LPPXQH
- GLGQ¶WNQRZZKDWFDXVHGWKHdisease outbreak, while elders believed it was a supernatural force ± the
Gods wanted it ± KHGLGQ¶WEHOLHYHWKHVDPH
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (Ar-Razi)
- Persian physician and alchemist
- died in 930 A.D.
- first to use humoralism (disease treatment is based on the imbalance of humours ± melancholic, choleric,
phlegmatic, sanguine ± ZKLFKH[SODLQZK\VRPHJHWVLFNDQGRWKHUVGRQ¶WWRGLVWLQJXLVKRQHW\SHRI
disease from another
- first to diagnose smallpox versus measles = different diseases are caused by different microorganisms
- recognized epidemic force of smallpox
- first to describe allergic asthma
- first to understand fever is a mechanism for fighting infection
Avicenna
- Persian philosopher and physician
- died in 1037 A.D.
- father of modern medicine
- wrote The Canon of Medicine
www.notesolution.com
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