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1) What is the most efficient and cost-effective way to control infectious diseases? A) variolation C) passive immunotherapy using immunoglobulins B) active immunization by vaccination D) immune testing E) autoimmunization 2) Variolation was first used _______ A) to immunize the Chinese against smallpox. B) to protect individuals against the plague during the Middle Ages. C) to spread smallpox throughout the Native American populations. D) to treat individuals exposed to hepatitis. E) for research purposes in the 20th century. 3) Almost a century after Edward Jenner introduced successful vaccination, Louis Pasteur developed vaccine(s) against A) anthrax. B) human cholera. C) rabies. D) influenza. E) both anthrax and rabies. 4) Pathogens may be attenuated for use in vaccines by ______ A) raising the pathogen for several generations in tissue culture cells. B) genetic manipulation. C) treatment with formaldehyde. D) genetic manipulation coupled with treatment with formaldehyde. E) genetic manipulation and/or raising the pathogen for several generations in tissue culture cells. 5) Which of the following statements regarding an inactivated vaccine is FALSE? A) It can be produced with deactivated whole microorganisms. B) It can be produced from antigenic fragments of a pathogen. C) It is safer than an attenuated vaccine. D) It is made from mutated forms of the pathogen. E) It is made from pathogens that cannot replicate. 6) Which of the following substances is commonly used to inactivate microbes before using them for vaccination? A) formaldehyde B) aluminum C) mineral oil D) saponin E) aluminum phosphate 7) What type of vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine? A) inactivated whole pathogen B) attenuated vaccine C) toxoid vaccine D) a recombinant vaccine composed of a single antigen of the hepatitis virus E) a vaccine produced by treating the virus with formaldehyde 8) An infectious disease researcher isolates the pathogen responsible for an emerging disease. The microbe is grown in the lab for many generations. A preparation of the laboratory-grown microbe is treated with ionizing radiation and then tested for its potential as a vaccine. What type of vaccine is this? A) attenuated B) subunit C) combination D) toxoid E) inactivated whole 9) OPV, the attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine, is no longer administered in the U.S.A. because it A) is very toxic. B) does not provide good immunity. C) can revert to wild-type virulence. D) can be spread to contacts. E) can be spread to contacts and can revert to wild-type virulence. 10) Hybridomas are factories for antibodies and are produced by _____ A) combining two virus-infected cells. B) fusing plasma cells with myeloma cells. C) repeated culture of a pathogen until it loses its virulence. D) combining a viral infected cell with a bacterial infected cell. E) combining two bacterial infected cells. 11) The study and diagnosis of antigen-antibody interactions in the blood is known as _____ A) immunology. B) hematology. C) serology. D) cytology. E) histology. 12) Which type of antibody assay is represented in this figure? A) an indirect ELISA C) an indirect immunofluorescence assay B) a direct ELISA D) a western blot E) an immunodiffusion assay 13) Titration is a serological procedure that A) identifies the causative microbe of an infectious disease. B) determines the amount of an antibody in the blood. C) must be done before the western blot test to diagnose HIV. D) is used for blood grouping. E) has been replaced by genetic engineering in isolating the antigen of a pathogen. 14) A woman uses a home pregnancy test kit that tests for hCG hormone in urine. She knows this is a type of antibody assay from the kit brochure. Antibodies reacting with the hormone produce two lines on the test strip. What specific type of antibody assay does this represent? A) a direct immunofluoresence test C) an immunochromatographic assay B) a complement fixation test D) an ELISA E) a neutralization assay 15) The complement fixation test uses red blood cells as the target for complement activation. Test serum containing antibodies is combined with a known amount of antigen in a tube, and then the RBCs and antibodies against the RBCs are added. A positive result for the complement fixation test would be A) a line of precipitate near the bottom of the tube. C) loss of color in the tube. B) a cloudy solution in the tube. D) a fluorescent precipitate. E) a solution that is clear due to precipitation of RBCs.
1. Indicate to which branch(es) of theimmune system the following statements apply.
Explain your answer.
a) Involves macrophages
b) Responds to viral infection
c) Involves T cells
d) Responds to bacterial toxins
e) Most likely responds following an organ transplant
f) Involves cytotoxic T cells
g) Involves B cells
h) Involves complement
i) Responds to extracellular bacterial infection
j) Involves secreted antibody
k) Kills virus infected self cells
I) Involves the thymus
m) Involves the bone marrow
2. You are given two solutions, one containing protein A and theother the antibody to this protein both at about 5mg/ml. When youadd 1 ml of anti-A to 1 ml of protein A, a precipitate forms.However, when you dilute the antibody solution 20 fold and then mix1 ml of the diluted anti-A with 1 ml protein A, no precipitateforms.
Explain why no precipitate formed with the diluted antibody.
3. An energetic immunology student has isolated protein X.
The student believes it is a new isotype of humanimmunoglobulin.
a)What structural features would protein X have to have in orderto be classified as an immunoglobulin?
b) You prepare rabbit antibodies to (i) whole human IgG, (ii) tohuman ÃÂ» chain and (iii) to human ÃÂ³ chain.
Assuming protein X is in fact a new immunoglobulin isotype,which of these antibodies will bind to protein X? Explain why?
4. a) Describe the time course of a typical antibody response totetanus toxoid
b) Outline a vaccination schedule that makes effective use ofthis information.
5. a) Tetanus immunoglobulin from the horse can be used toprotect an individual against tetanus. How is the treatmentadministered and what are the advantages/disadvantages of this formof immunisation? 2
b) Is it possible to confer cell mediated immunity on anunsensitised recipient by transferring cells?
c) Would this be a practical method of immunisation, and whatproblems may be encountered in this type of experiment?
6. If you inject a rabbit with a large protein antigen X andsubsequently harvest the antiserum from the animal, would youexpect the antibodies to X in the antiserum to be monoclonal orpolyclonal?
7. a) Why, if the immune system is so efficient, do we continueto suffer from infectious diseases?
b) Speculate on the consequences if the immune system were tolose its ability to distinguish self-antigens from foreignones.
c) If a child is born without a thymus gland, what will be thenature of the child's illness
d) If a child were born with a defect in the complement system,say a deficiency in function C3, what would be theconsequences?
8 Considering only combinational joining of gene segments andassociation of light and heavy chains, how many different antibodymolecules potentially could be generated from germ line DNAcontaining 500VL and 4JL gene segments and 200VH. 10DH and 4JH genesegments?
9 During an immune response to antigen, the antibodies producedduring a secondary and subsequent responses have a greater affinityfor antigen than those produced during a primary response toantigen
Explain what is meant by "affinity"
Explain in principle the mechanism which explains the aboveobservation re increasing antibody affinity for antigen insecondary and subsequent responses