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Final

study notes for lecture seven: being a B cell - how antibodies neutralize pathogens


Department
Immunology
Course Code
IMM250H1
Professor
Dana Philpott
Study Guide
Final

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Lecture SEVEN: BEING A B CELL: HOW ANTIBODIES NEUTRALIZE PATHOGENS
HISTORY OF AIDS
YEAR
ContributioN
¶V-¶V
- VHYHUDOLQVWDQFHVRIVWRUHGWLVVXHVDPSOHVIRUWKHµ¶VDQGµ¶VIRXQGWRFRQWDLQ+,9
¶V-¶V
- AIDS believed to have started in NA ± likely from Haiti
1981
- CDC first reported unusual clusters of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in groups of homosexual men in LA
- known as GRID back in the day
1981-1982
- further clusters of PCP infection seen
- discovery of other opportunistic diseases
::KDSRVLVVDUFRPD
::lymphadenopathy
LPSRUWDQWDVWKHVHGLVHDVHVZHUHFRQVHTXHQFHVRIDQXQUHODWHGYLUXVWKDWVQRWQRUPDOO\SDWKRJHQLF
1982
- appearance of symptoms in non-homosexual groups lead to redefinition of the disease as AIDS
- from the onset, AIDS was simply a collection of unusual disease phenotypes
HIV AS THE CAUSE OF AIDS
*AIDS has different sequela/phenotypes
HDUO\¶V
- epidemiological data supports the notion that AIDS is caused by an infectious agent
May 1983
- 'U/XF0RQWDJQLHUVWHDPDWWKH Pasteur Institute on Paris reported a new retrovirus from lymphoid tissue they believed was the cause
of AIDS
- virus was named LAV: lymphadenopathy-associated virus
*LAV was simply a consequence of one of the phenotypes of those suffering from AIDS
May 1984
- Dr. Robert Gallo and his colleagues confirmed the viral nature of the infectious agent
- virus was named HTLV-III (human T-lymphotropic virus type III)
March 1985
- LAV and HTLV-III were shown to be the same virus
May 1986
- International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses ruled that the names would be replaced with AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency
syndrome)
2008
- Dr. Luc Montagnier and Dr. Fraoise Barré-Sinoussi received the Nobel Prize for the discovery of HIV
ÆHIV knocks down the immune system to render individuals susceptible to infections
Æthese infections are normally present in the environment and not pathogenic
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