03 - Innate Immunity II.docx

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Victor Barac

Innate Immunity II Acute Phase Response – Δ in blood in early phase of immune response st Involves protein and cellular elements – 1 macrophages/neutrophils to arrive release cytokines  Tumour necrosis factor α  TNFα  Interleukin 1 and 6 (IL-1, IL-6) o Causes  body temperature, inflammation – Fibrinogen: starts clotting cascade  Clots bvs downstream of injury so infection cannot spread  Problems: flow backup = inflammation, swelling  loosen bv endothelial lining  blood gets into ECM o Allows immune cells to move easily between cells to kill pathogens Complement: group of blood proteins that recognize and destroy microbes Overview of the complement cascade Overview of the main components and effector actions of complement – In innate immune system:  Alternative pathway o Proteins: C3 C6 Factor B Unique to C7 Common to all * See Fig 2.26 for list of fxns Factor D alternative C8 pathways for all compliment proteins pathway C5 C9  Lectin pathway – In adaptive immune system: classical / humoral pathway  Antibodies recognize, compliment (innate) destroys – Normally inactive  Activation by sequential proteolysis  Products can bind to microbial surfaces (or to antibodies bound to microbes)  Inhibited by regulatory proteins found on host cells Complement Activated by Alternative Pathway – Functions of C5a  Activates phagocytosis of C3b opsonized pathogens bound to Complement Receptor 1  Causes chemotaxis of macrophages and neutrophils thorugh C5a receptor
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