Notes for the grammar test

38 views3 pages
25 Mar 2011
of 3
Subject-Verb Agreement
Uncountable nouns
-The news is…”
-*“An information…”
-Less information…” VS *“Fewer
The key to the drawers is…” Ignore prepositional phrases to find real Sbj
Macaroni and cheese is…” Compounds that are one unit
Either adebit or two credit cards are
Neither the teacher nor students are…”
Closest to verb agrees
Each, everyone, nothing, no one, everyoneSingular verb
MAANS Singular or plural depends on Obj of P
There is one key…”
There are two kittens…”
Agree with real Sjb
There was still a play and his lines…”
Here was a pen and two pencils…”
Agree with first noun
Adminstration, class, jury, population, staff
His family comes for A…”
Singular verb IFF members acting in unison
His family come from A, B, and C…” Plural verb IFF members not acting in unison
A number of bees are…” Plural
The number of bees is…” Singular
Seven Seas is…” Singular if referring to what the word represents
2/3 of work is…”
2/3 of guests are…”
Agree with what follows of
85 dollars is…”
Millions are…”
Singular if $ specified
Plural if $ vague
Acoustics, statistics, linguistics Singular IFF meaning field of study
Plural otherwise
A, as well as B, is…”
A as well as B are…”
Singular IFF set off by commas
Plural IFF without commas
…students who study…” Who, which, that agrees with antecedent
Pronouns (case and pronoun-antecedent agreement)
Subjective caseObjective case
SubjectDirect/Indirect object
Pronoun following conjugation of be
The princesses are you and I.
Object of preposition
Subject-Pronouns following as and than
She is as quick as he
Object-Pronouns following as and than
I trust her more than him
Who Whom
[M in him]
The team and I played…” VS *“The team and myself played…”
Each other- subject involving two
One anothersubject involving three or more
Singular -body, -one, -thing
[Anybody, everyone, something]
SingularmostlyAnother, each, either, much, neither, one, other
PluralBoth, few many, several
Context-dependent More, most, all, any, none, some
Singular pronounPlural pronoun
Compound preceded by each or every
Every A and B has its own”
Singular antecedents joined by and
Both A and B did their taxes
Singular antecedents joined by or, nor
Neither A nor B has its own”
Plural antecedents joined by or, nor
Either As or Bs did their duty”
Mixed plural and singular antecedents joined by or, nor…agree with nearest antecedent
Context-dependent: whether singular or plural depends on object of preposition
None meaning not a single one or for a mass N
None of the food…its
None of the scouts…his
None of the scouts knew how to fix their…”
Dangling, Misplaced, Squinting Modifiers
I felt bad for the child, who played badly in the game.
Faulty parallelism: and, or, not only…but also
Change all units to same part of speech
* My prof gave not only Bs but also took As. VERSUS My prof gave not only Bs but also As.
Comma Splices and Sentence Fragments
To link simple sentences (independent SV)
, and/but/for/or/nor/or/so/yet = ;
NB. ; also used when commas already used within parts of compound sentence
; however,
; therefore,
; on the other hand,
; for example,
Comma splices are improperly joined
Complex sentence = 1 independent SV + 1+ subordinate SV
Restrictive = essential information conveyed
That “Who
No commas around
Non-restrictive = non-essential information
Enclosed with commas
Sentence fragment = lacking V or S or both, cannot stand alone
Apostrophes (possessives and contractions)
Singular Singular possessive
Singular possessive
Plural possessive
[Cf. Jesus, Moses,
-s’ -ses
-z-zs-z’ -zes
A dollars worth VS Three dollars worth”
Sales Department No possessive apostrophe b/c N used as Adj
Morning specials price or s added to final element of compound
This brownie is better than the Mrs. Jones. Unstated noun but still possessive
Adults and childs rights
Adam and Eves garden
Separate ownership so both get possessive
Combined ownership so last gets possessive
Ph.D.s credentialsLike humans/animals
I abhor Kevins smoking.