1. Production – One of the three branches of the film industry; the process of creating the
- Preproduction – The phase of filmmaking that prepares for production on the
basis of a screenplay, design, and financing.
- Post production – The phase of film production that assembles the images and
sounds into the finished item.
2. Filmic Convention –
3. Principles of Film Form –
4. Function – The role or effect of any element within the film‟s form.
5. Similarity and Repetition –
6. Difference and Variation –
7. Development –
8. Unity/Disunity – The degree to which a film‟s parts relate systematically to one another
and provide motivation for all the elements included.
9. Narrative – A type of filmic organization in which the parts relate to one another through a
series of causally related events taking place in time and space. (A time-line of events
taking place in order to tell a story)
10. Three-act structure –
11. Story – In a narrative film, all the events that we see and hear, plus all those we infer or
assume to have occurred, arranged in their presumed causal relations, chronological
order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations: opposed to plot, which is the film‟s
actual presentation of events in the story.
12. Plot – In a narrative film, all the events that are directly presented to us, including their
causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency, and special locations: opposed
to story, which is the viewer‟s imaginary construction of all the events in the narrative.
13. Temporal order –
- Frequency –
- Duration –
14. In Medias Res –
15. Exposition –
16. Closure – The degree to which the ending of a narrative film reveals the effects of all the
causal events and resolves (or “closes off”) all lines of action.
17. Shooting on Location – The process of filming at an external location outside of the
- Shooting on Set – The process of filming at the studio/set, using props,
backdrops, and scenes to create a setting.
18. Hard Lighting – Illumination that creates sharp-edged shadows.
- Soft Lighting – Illumination that avoids harsh bright and dark areas, creating a
gradual transition from highlights to shadows.
19. Directional lighting –
20. Key Light – In the three-point lighting system, the brightest illumination coming into the
- Fill Light – Illumination from a source less bright than the key light, used to soften
deep shadows in a scene. 21. Three-point lighting – A common arrangement using three directions of light on scene:
from behind the subjects (backlighting), from one bright source (key light), and from a
less bright source balancing the key light (fill light).
- High-key lighting – Illumination that creates comparatively little contrast between
the light and dark areas of the shot. Shadows are fairly transparent and
brightened by fill light.
- Low-key – Illumination that creates strong contrast between light and dark areas
of the shot, with deep shadows and little fill light.
22. Stylization and Individualization (in acting) –
23. Symmetrical Composition –
- Balanced Composition –
- Unbalanced Composition –
24. Shallow-Space Composition – Staging the action in relatively few planes of depth.
- Deep-Space Composition – An arrangement of mise-en-scene elements so that
there is a considerable distance between the place closest to the camera and the
one farthest away. Any or all of these planes may be in focus.
25. Frontality – In staging, the positioning of figures so that they face the viewer.
26. Shot –
- 1) In shooting, one uninterrupted run of the camera to expose a series of frames;
also called a take.
- 2) In the finished film, one uninterrupted image, whether or not there is mobile
27. Scene – A segment in a narrative film that takes place in one time and space or that uses
crosscutting to show two or more simultaneous actions.
28. Sequence – Term commonly used for a moderately large segment of film, involving one
complete stretch of action; in a narrative film, often equivalent to a scene.
29. High-Contrast Cinematography –
- Low-Contrast Cinematography –
30. Chiaroscuro –
31. Saturated Colour – Includes a full range of colours and shades.
- Desaturated Colour – Includes only shades of white, black, and any grey in
32. Exposure – The adjustment of the camera mechanism in order to control how much light
strikes each frame of film passing through the aperture.
- Underexposed – When a scene appears darker than what is actually being seen.
- Overexposed – When a scene appears brighter than what is actually being seen.
33. Fast-Motion – When a shot is being played through using real-time speed, or a faster
- Slow-Motion – When a shot is being played through using slower than actual
34. Lens – A shaped piece of transparent material (usually glass) with either or both sides
curved to gather and focus light rays. Most camera and projector lenses place a series of
lenses within a metal tube to form a compound lens.
- Wide-Angle – A lens of short focal length that affects a scene‟s perspective by
distorting straight lines near the edges of the frame and by exaggerating the distance between foreground and background planes. In 35mm filming, a wide-
angle lens has a focal length of 35mm or less.
- Normal – A lens that shows objects without severely exaggerating or reducing
the depth of the scene‟s planes. In 35mm filming, a normal lens has a focal
length between 35 and 50mm.
- Telephoto – A lens of long focal length that affects a scene‟s perspective by
enlarging distant planes and making them seem close to the foreground planes.
In 35mm filming, a lens with a focal length of 75mm or more.
- Zoom – A lens with a focal length that can be changes during a shot. A shift
toward the telephoto-lens ranges enlarges the image and flattens its planes
together, giving an impression of magnifying the scene‟s space; a shift toward
the wide-angle range does the opposite.
35. Renaissance Perspective –
36. Depth of Field – The measurements of the closet and farthest planes in front of the
camera lens between which everything will be in sharp focus. A depth of field from 5 to
16 feet, for example, would mean everything closer tan 5 feet and farther than 16 feet
would be out of focus.
37. Rack Focus – The effect of shifting the area of sharp focus from one plane to another
during a shot.
38. Superimposition – The exposure of more than one image on the same filmstrip or in the
39. Mask (Iris) – A round, moving mask that can close down to end a scene (iris-out) or
emphasize a detail, or that can open to begin a scene (iris-in) or to reveal more space
around a detail.
- Iris-In - ^
- Iris-Out - ^
40. Low-angle shot –
- High-angle shot –
41. Canted Framing – A view in which the frame is not level; either the right or the left side is
lower than the other, causing objects in the scene to appear slanted out of an upright
42. Shot Scale –
- Extreme Close-Up – A framing in which the scale of the object shown is very
large; most commonly, a small object or part of the body.
- Close-Up – A framing in which the scale of the object shown is relatively large;
most commonly, a person‟s head seen from the neck up, or an object of a
comparable size that fills most of the screen.
- Medium Close-Up – A framing in which the scale of the object shown is fairly
large; a human figure seen from the chest up would fill most of the screen.
- Medium Shot – A framing in which the scale of the object shown is of moderate
size; a human figure seen from the waist up would fill most of the screen.
- Medium Long Shot – A framing at a distance that makes an object about 4 or feet
high appear to fill most of the screen vertically.
- Long Shot – A framing in which the scale of the object shown is small; a standing
human figure would appear nearly the height of the screen.
- Extreme Long Shot – A framing in which the scale of the object shown is very
small; a building, landscape, or crowd of people will fill the screen.
43. Pan – A thing you make food in. Also referred to as saucepan, skillet, or wok. - Just Kidding – A camera movement with the camera body turning to right or left.
On the screen, it produces a mobile framing that scans the space horizontally.
44. Tilt – A camera movement with the camera body swiveling upward or downward on a
stationary support. It produces a mobile framing that scans the space vertically.
45. Tracking Shot – A mobile framing that travels through space forward, backward, or
46. Crane Shot – A shot with a change in framing accomplished by placing the camera above
the subject and moving through the air in any direction.
47. Handheld Camera – The use of the camera operator‟s body as a camera support, either