no computer or electronics allowed, dictionary and thesaurus allowed
2 parts, out of 100
Part 1: email and a memo revision only (hard), list the mistakes in parallel form sentences, one
1 paragraph no more than 100 words explain why you made the changes that you made
Part 2: given case study, easy informal report, 500 words
PURPOSE OF WRITING? Response, have questions...
SUBJECT: 2-11 WORDS
Subject: (optional placement here)
Subject: (optional placement here)
Name Typed clear message, reputation in mind
why am I writing?
highlight benefits - what i will do for YOU
Subject: like newspaper heading, only first letter of first word capitalized, no punct
1st sent: “why am i writing? What do i want or need from the reader? What do i want to give to
preferably only 1 sentence, 22 words. Max 2 sentences, 3 lines, 25 words
then Explain main idea.
1-2 line paragraphs each of 1 topic
BULLETS, headings - accessible
Many internalize the 1st as most important
End your message with restate purpose, action information, dates or deadlines; summary;
closing thought. "please get back to me (DATE)" (when request), close with a reassuring
summary (when respond)
NO - "feel free to get back to me if you have questions"
Meet: set a date, meet for? "PLEASE... respond to the DETAILS... by DATE TIME"
"i look forward to receiving this information by DATE, TIME"
~5 business days, but if too long, will be forgotten, noon, Thursdays and Tuesdays
"you requested ...date... on the ...."
Indirect: Based on what you want, support your claims: convincing evidence, common goals and
Gain attention neutrally
• requesting favors, begin with a compliment, unexpected fact, stimulating question,
reader benefit, summary of the problem, or candid plea for help.
• For claims (when you are unhappy with something), consider opening with a review of
action you have taken to resolve the problem.
• For sales, Offer something valuable, promise a significant result, or describe a product
• Present a testimonial, startling statement
• Prove accuracy and merit of request with facts, figures, expert opinion, examples, and
• Suggest direct and indirect benefits for the receiver.
• Offer something valuable, promise a significant result, or describe a product feature.
• Present a testimonial, make a startling statement, or show the reader in an action
• Identify possible obstacles; offer counter arguments.
• show how the receiver or others will benefit
• money-back guarantees, attractive warranties, trial offers, or free samples.
• Build credibility with results of performance tests, polls, or awards.
Motivate action Repeat a key benefit
• repetition of the central selling point and clear instructions for an easy action to be
• Prompt the reader to act immediately with a gift, incentive, limited offer, or deadline. ‘why am I writing to you’ answer in middle MEMORANDUM
TO: All Medical Centre Personnel
FROM: Tom Barker TB
DATE: June 20, 2013
Starting Wednesday, June 23, 2013, all medical centre personnel can make service calls at 416-
742-5438, 24 hours a day.
The Maintenance Department has done this to improve response time to your requests among
departments. Service calls are for:
• Loss of heat
• Air conditioning
• Water leaks
• Clogged plumbing
• Faulty electrical wiring
• Safety or security hazards
You can find specific Service Call requirements in the Policies and Regulations manual.
Requests exceeding these will be classified as Job Orders, also outlined in the manual.
When you call, you will be given a service call number. You can use it to check the status of your
Please note that during 5:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. daily, all day weekends and holidays, only one
Maintenance Mechanic is on duty. If no one answers, please call again.
For urgent emergencies, the PBX Operator must be notified to page maintenance.
Your cooperation in this matter is greatly appreciated. Informal Reports:
Contain all of the necessary parts that formal documents contain; they do not contain
preliminary data (title page, etc.)
E-mail, Memo, Letter
Two types of informal reports:
1. Informational Reports: answer questions and provide information without analysis. tells
readers what they need to know. three sections: Introductions, Findings,
a. Types of informational reports: Periodic report, Situational Report, Incident Report.
i. Periodic Report: Written regularly, describes recurring activities by recording data,
ii. Situational Report: response to two specific types of non-recurring situations (1)
business trips or conferences and (2) Progress of a continuing project. Typical
headings for Progress Reports include: Background, Work Completed, Work to be
Completed, Anticipated Problems. Usually close by stating when the next Progress
report is due.
iii. Incident Reports: Documents problems, unusual events, changes from routine events,.
This type of report provides complete and accurate details of an incident, answering
the questions Who? When? What? Where? How?
2. Investigative Reports: Evaluates problems or situations and presents facts based on
evaluation. Typically made up of Introduction, Findings, Conclusions and potentially
a. Three main categories: Recommendation Reports , Justification Reports and Feasibility
i. Recommendation reports are analytical; recommend an action, in response to
ii. Justification reports are analytical reports that justify the need for a purchase,
investment, policy change, or hiring. The justification report can be presented directly
1. Direct justification report:
a. Introduces the problem
b. Presents the recommendation, action, or solution
c. Justifies the recommendation by highlighting advantages and benefits and
explaining it in more detail. This section takes into detail the benefits and the
advantages of applying the recommendation usually by comparing it to other
potential but obviously not chosen options.
d. Ends with a summary that refers to the action to be taken
2. Indirect justification report:
a. Introduces the problem and provide details that convince readers of its
seriousness—do not reveal the recommendation.
b. Discuss other measures or alternatives under descriptive headings, starting
with the least likely and ending with your recommendation.
c. Show that the advantages of your solution outweigh the disadvantages.
d. Summarizes the action to be taken and ask for authorization.
iii. Feasibility reports evaluate projects or alternatives to determine if they are worthwhile
for the company. The process for writing a feasibility reports is:
1. Announce the decision to be made and list its alternatives