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Linguistics Midterm Review.docx

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Monica Irimia

Linguistics Midterm Review Phonology part II Syllable Structure Notion of SyllableSonority Scales Phonemes mental abstract units Allophones variants of phonemes respecting factors involved in actual productionwhat we actually end up articulatingwhen sequences of several sounds are pronounced in human languages they are organized in smaller unitsa 12 3 4 n k spk tdsyllables groups of segments with internal organizationthey are suprasegmental above the segment unitsif a syllable is a group of sounds we would also want to know its structureprinciples of organization speakers possess unconscious knowledge of what counts as a syllable in their languageEx a 12 3 4n k spk tdb 12 3 4n k spk td this structure impossible both structures possibleambisyllabification c 12 3 4n ks pk td Why distinction between sonorantsobstruents Sonorants vowels glides liquids and nasals from most to least sonorous Obstruents stops fricatives affricates which are not sonorant soundsbecause of their high sonority vowels form the peak of the syllablenucleus less sonorous sounds appear on either side of nucleusNote the nuclei of syllables are usually vowels but liquidsnasals can behave as vowels and function as nuclei of syllables in many languages including English 1Syllable Blueprint native speakers know that seeing a vowel there must be a syllable the number of vowels in a word usually determines how many syllables it has2 major constituent parts of the structure of syllables Onset always precedes comes before the nucleus Rhyme consists of nucleussyllable core and coda because the nucleuscoda creates rhyming eg wallfallcertain processes are syllable initial meaning they happen at the beginning of every syllable in the onset position while word initial is at the beginning of every wordExaspiration punreleasedclosure p closure vigorously released phappen at the end of a wordPhonotactics all languages have syllables which are universally subject to constraints1 Syllable nuclei usually consists of 1 vowel 2 Syllables usually begin with onsets 3 Syllables usually end with codas 4 Onsets and codas usually consist of one consonantmost common types of syllable structure found across languagesCV and CVC however there are LOTS of variationsEnglish can allow up to 4 consonants in the coda ex sixths sIkss3 consonant in the onsetex splatter spring etc but 3 cons in the onset can only be done with s as the first lettersound complex nucleus some languages allow long vowels in their nucleus eg nootti CVVCCVdiphthongs can also create complex nuclei Spanish English etc in Romanian iau one syllable with a as the nucleus and the other vowels as onsetcodaNote continuedSyllables containing nasalsglides as nuclei are called syllabic consonants marked by a vertical line under the segmentExbottle bl button btnnative speakers can identify which combinations are possible in an onset coda etc Ex we can know that vpr will never be found in the onset when first learning a language which does contain this combination they adapt it by deleting one of the consonants or insert a vowel between them 2
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