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Lecture 1

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Language Phonetic/Phonolo System of sounds (know which combinations of sounds are possible) gy Morphology Knowledge of word structure (Know which words are possible) Syntax Knowledge of sentence structure (Know which combinations of words are possible) Semantics Knowledge of meaning Pragmatics Real-world usage (can recognize ambiguities in meaning/ aware of level of formality) Ambiguities: In a sentence, there are several meanings Linguistics -> Scientific study of human languages/ human capacity for language Linguists… Describe language as it is actually spoken by people native speakers accept (a word/ sentence) then that form grammatical in that people’s dialect! Are interested in all natural languages (dialects), non-just (standard dialect) EX: HK linguists only wants to study Cantonese, not Mandarin Some word/sentence can be grammatical in one dialect YET ungrammatical in another dialect Examine speech’s formality (Formal speech/ Casual speech/ Polite speech/ Impolite speech) Formal/ Informal speech are grammatical Languages are… all systematic, and have grammar (unconscious knowledge of a linguistic rule system) equally complex/ able to express ideas Children acquire language without teaching! Changing over time (continuum of language varieties) Spoken VS Written Language SPEECH WRITTEN Ancient Writing is NOT a LANGUAGE!!!! Exists in all societies Written language is a subset of human language -> some people uses it/ able to edit Automatically acquired Prescriptivism VS Descriptivism PRESCRIPTIVISM DESCRIPTIVISM How people speak/ Describe unconscious knowledge Grammarians support that “COREECT EDUCATED” (Linguistics) ways of speaking a language Used to study different regional/ social dialects Rules supported by purists are uncertain Standard VS Non-standard STANDARD NON-STANDARD Spoken by people with social/ economic power in a Used by socially/ politically/ non-dominant speakers particular region (ex: In China= Mandarin) Often the basis for prescriptive rule Used by speakers for stylistic or other reason (ex: I an’t doing this) Used by media/government/education Dialect Overt Prestige widely recognized as being used by a culturally dominant group (standard varieties) Covert Prestige Generally aware by the dominant culture group as being inferior (lower rank) (generally applies to non-standard) Style Formal / Informal Grammatical/Ungrammatical Prescriptivist rules Grammaticality is judged (speaker/dialect) Languages have ways to express formality Grammatical is not based on Truth, Reality, Meaningfulness Terminology, Categories, and the Concept Subject Describe the topic or main actor of a sentence Predicate Often describe what situation surrounding the subject Clause Contains a subject and a predicate Sentence Can contain multiple clauses EX: Cindy wants to play with the doll that her sister is playing happily with. Part of Speech Word-> in English belong to various categories, different categories have different properties Noun Describe physical objects individuals, plants, and animals, abstract concept Form: singular/ plural Type:
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