LIN 204 Review Note Review Importance for Mid TermFrom Mid-Term (Lecture 1-5).docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Richard Compton

LIN 204 Review Note: Lecture 1: outline Language: - Combination of words to create sentence & Meaning in real-world usage and level of formality Linguistics: a study of human languages capacity - Grammatical (both formal and informal) and varying levels of formality Prescriptivism: 规范 (how people should speak) - Do not end sentence with a preposition; Do not split an infinitive - Tow negative = positive; - Some time is arbitrary: no rules Descriptivism: 描述 (focus of this course) - Actually speak on their languages - Unconscious knowledge of speakers Formal vs. informal: - Different usage from formal speech, but it is also grammatical - Formality are different among dialect Grammatical vs. ungrammatical: - * - Judged with respect to a particular speaker or dialect Terminology, categories, and concepts: - Subject (topic or main actor) and predicate (situation) (S + V) - Sentence vs. Clause: capital letter; period, question mark, etc; vs. S + V; multiple in one sentence - Nouns; verb, preposition, adjectives, adverbs (different properties among them) Noun: describe physical objects (abstract concepts) - Singular & plural - Common nouns (things are not unique); proper nouns (unique; e.g. Toronto); pronouns (e.g. you, he, etc) Verb: (to sub and obj) - Action: I make it. (what action) - Event: he was hit. (what happen) - State: I sense it (bit abstract) Adjective: - Describe properties of objects, individuals, or concepts (all nouns) - Gradable: comparative and superlative Determinative: - Extra information about nouns - Includes: article (the, a), demonstratives (this, that), and quantifiers (few, much, many) Adverb: - Similar in meaning to adjectives (describe property) but modify verbs - Normal Form: adj + ly (expect hard, early, friendly, fast) Prepositions: - Location: (beside, below, in, on) - Time and space: (until, since, at, from, toward) Coordinators: - Express conjunctions (and, but) and disjunctions (or) Subordinator: 主从连词 - Introduce new clause subordinating to main clause (that, whether, if) – clause is part of sentence Structure of phrases: see lecture #3 for details - Head: determines the category of the phrase (NP, VP. etc) - Dependent (in phrase): provide more information (what, where, when, how, whom) E.g.: NP [[The man (noun) ](head) from Toronto (dependent)] noun phrase - NP : dog (N) – the dog in the window (NP) VP: run (V) – run to the store (VP) PP: preposition phrase In (P) – in the window (PP)  find the “head” at first Type of dependents: in sentences - Complements: closer to the head and often required (really want to combine an object) She bought a book. - Modifiers: optional, extra information, before/after - She left. - She left yesterday, after party, school, again. Canonical clauses: - Declare - Lack negation (no “not”); lack coordinator (no “and, but, or”); lack subordinate clauses (only one main clause and period) - Follow this pattern: S + V Non-canonical clauses: - Various ways: Negative (not…), interrogative (?), imperative (do it!), subordinate (that…), coordinated (… and …), passive (is been…), preposed (The others, I gave Kim = I gave Kim the others) Function vs. category: detailed in lecture #3 1. Function: subject, object, determiner, and etc 2. Category: NP, VP, subjective, objective, determinative, etc 3. Same category & Different functions: Some people see us. (subject, NP); We see some people (object, NP) Notations: - *(ungrammatical); - % (grammatical only is some dialects); - ?(questionable grammaticality); - ! (non-standard) Vocabulary: Conjunction: 连词 Disjunction: 不一致 Coordinator: 协调词 Determiner: 限定词 Determinative: 限定性的语言 Prescriptivism: 规范 Utter: 发出 Lecture #2: verbs (6 verb forms, auxiliary vs. lexical, 4 verb tenses) Verb forms: rd - Primary forms (used in main clause): Preterit, 3 Person Singular, Plain Present - Secondary forms (cannot be only verb in sentence, must have primary forms): Plain Form, Gerund-Participle, Past Participle (have…..) - Preterit & Past Participle: same shape (unless irregular forms) & different forms Person & Number (singular vs. plural): - All little mark on verbs (expect, be & 3 Person Singular Present) - Person: speaker (1st); receiver (2nd); others (3rd) Plain Present vs. Plain Form: - Same shape (except “be”) - Plain Present: something we expect & it must be true: I am going to… Plain Form: something we expect but it is NOT necessary true: I will be… - Plain Form ($): imperative, subjunctive, to-infinitival, and bare infinitival, “be” always plain form Gerund-Participle: - Progressive; relative clause; adjective; noun (Lec #2, P 13) Past Participle: - Perfect, Passive *Finite vs. non-finite (of verbs): all verbs are either one of them; distinguish them by seeing verb forms - Specific tense, number, and person vs. non-specific - Must have a sub vs. not necessary (Way to Distinguish) - Seeing Verb Forms: Finite: include all primary forms; plus imperative (do it!); subjunctive (that…) clauses in plain form Non-finite: infinitival (to do; should do), gerund-participle (ing), past participle (been, taken the children…..) Major types of verbs: - Lexical Verbs: run, tie, send - Auxiliary Verbs 助动词 : modal (can, may) and non modal (be, have, do) Auxiliary Verbs: use properties to distinguishAuxiliary and Lexical - Negation: + not (A) / + do not (L) - Question-formation: inverted (A)/ +do (L) - Emphasis 强调 : use to empathic stress OR replace: e.g. you do know what this is (A) / I don‟t think he made it, but he made it. (repeating, odd, change to he did) (L) - Ellipsis省略 : I can do it and you can too = I can do it and you can do it too. (“can” is A) / I want to go and you want to go as well – *I want to go and you want as well. (“want” is L) - Contraction: cannot = can‟t; *not put = put‟t Both auxiliary and lexical verbs (various forms): - Do (action, Lexi) - Have (possession) - Need (suggest –Auxi; require – Lexi; some chooseAuxi and some choose Lexi) *Ordering ofAuxiliary Verbs: P26 - Modal/Will + Have (perfect) + Present / Plain / Passive “Be” + Progressive “Be” + Lexical Verb (various form)(always follow this order) 1. Have Modal & No have/will = no past participle “be”, plain “be” 2. No modal & have “have” = unchanged pattern 3. No modal & No have = No Past Participle & Plain, prime forms “be” Verb Tense: Primary tense: Present & Preterit (no central & specific uses) Present tense: - Present time reference (mainly use): action hold at the time of speech; running commentaries (he shoots, he circles, he scores!) - “timeless” usage: synopses 概要 for TV, movie, and captions 简短说明 - Past Time usage: informal, for certain past events such as “hot news” to make more vivid - Future: scheduled events OR conditional (assumed future): if … - Future time in subordinate clauses  Know the difference between present tense & plain form in subordinate clauses Preterit: - Past time reference: situation in the past - Modal remoteness: things are not true, unlikely to occur, only a wish: if you left now, you had miss the rush hour traffic.(P 36) - Backshift: change of a present tense in direct speech to a past tense in report speech (report something happened) Secondary Tenses: Perfect (present & preterit; have) vs. Non-Perfect: somehow relevant vs. non relevant (case is over, OR it is going) Perfect: - Present perfect: current relevance (P 40) - Preterite Perfect: relevance in a specific past time (two levels of past); used in Modal Remoteness (assume, wish) and Backshift (report) as in Preterite Tense (P 42) Non-perfect: (construction) - Progressive construction (whole sentence): be + ing (ongoing situation, in progress, or stretched out) - Perfective & Imperfective Interpretations (construction; whole sentence): finished & clear endpoint vs. during process & no clear endpoint  Progressive Construction usually results in an imperfective interpretation Mood: modal, modify, modality 手段 - About certainty, necessity, and obligation Modality: Deontic 义务的 : must, should Epistemic 认识的 : might, may - Dynamic Modality (other than certainty, necessity, and obligation): I can do. (ability), I will do. (volition决心 ) Will & Future: - Will: mark willingness and volition; not future - P 56 for detail Lecture #3 Clauses Structure Road map: - *Constituency 成分 tests - *Complements 补语 and adjuncts 附加 修饰语 - Transitivitytake a direct ob)及物的 vs. Intransitiv不及物的 (not taking a direct o)ject - Subject and object - Predicative complements (PC) Canonical clause structure: - S + Predicate OR a predicator with two complements: Adog (complement) chased (predicator) the car (complement) Constituents 成分: subject, predicates, clause, phrase (NP, VP), words; (a word or phrase or clause) - Whole constituent can be replace with other material, not part of it - Replace: tend to move together - Coordinated with and /or Category and function: all about Constituents Category Function NP (a dog) Subject, complement V (chased) Predicator NP (the car) Object, complement Subjective, objective, determinative *Test for constituency: 3 ways to distinguish constituents - Substitution: replace NP by pronouns / VP by do & so + too(see if they works) / PP, then + too (for time, copy same structure and only replace PP by “then”) & there + too (for place, replace entire PP for place even it is very long) e.g.: Women (NP) left – they (pronoun) left; Women left (VP) and they did so too. He left in the morning (PP, time) and we left then too. She ate at the mall (PP, space) and we ate there too. - Movement: displacement (,) & clefting (it‟s … that) e.g.: The like drinking water – Drinking water, they like; It is drinking water that they like - Coordination: add something in the same category and connect with and/or (neutral); but (express contrast, use when you need) e.g. The dog(NP) and the cat(NP) chased the car. The dog chased the car (NP) and the bicycles (NP). The dogs chase cars (Clause) and the birds build nests (Clause) - Combined use: substitute + coordination e.g. John saw the movie (clause) and Mary did too.(clause) *Complements: - External (outside of the predicate / VP, e.g. subjects) - Internal (inside the predicate/ VP, e.g. objects[both direct and indirect] & predicative complements[PC]) Transitivity / Transitive & Intransitive: - All about complements; no mater predicate / VP allows or not directly allows a object - Transitive V allows O: Monotransitives: V takes only one O (S + P + O) - I am a man. Ditranstive: V takes two O (S + P + O (direct obj+ O) (indirect o); (no preposition between two O) - I told you the truth. - Intransitive: V not directly allows O (S + P) - He left. - Complex Monotransitives & Intransitive: Monotransitives + PC & Intransitive + PC e.g. Complex Monotransitives: I did it well (S + P + O + PC (ADV)); P what O = PC Complex Intransitive: I work hard (S + P + PC (ADV) ) *there is no Complex Ditranstive - Dual-transitivity verbs: can be used in – intrans, monotrans, ditrans e.g. I write (intrans); I write carefully (complex intrans); I write the paper (monotrans); I write the paper carefully (complex monotrans); I write him a paper(ditrans) PC 谓语补足语: usually ADV; add property on sub (intrans) or obj (trans); PC shows how verb effects on sub or obj; verb = be – PC effects only sub You do not respect the transitivity and you get an ungrammatical utterance because some words want object and you cannot miss object, although some do not want and you cannot add as well. *Adjuncts: - Characters: freely to add and move; can be omitted; add more information about time, location, and so on - Usually add extra information, various categories (P 79) *Distinguish Complements andAdjuncts: 8 ways - Licensing, obligatoriness, substitution, category, position, argumenthood, selection, role Complements Adjuncts Licensing (free or not) 1. A certain verb allow certain No such restriction: complements (not allow all 1. free to add anything; complements); 2. can have any preposition in 2. have particular prepositions front of (although they are (when PC = PP) different in meaning but I read the letter you can use them) *I said the letter I read the letter at noon. I am interested in it (PC) I read the letter after noon. *I am interested on it. I read the letter on bus. I read the letter near bus. I read the letter beside bus. Obligatoriness (omit or not) Verbs Requiring a complement, Not requiring, not necessary, necessary for a sentence, cannot can be omitted be omitted She left because she was hurry. I chase my dream. She left before noon. *I chase. She left by bus. She left. Substitution (do-so/too) Do-so must substitute the No such requirement for internal complement (substitute adjunct: do-so, too only whole VP – V, PC, O); too substitute V cannot be omitted I made it and she did so too. *I made it and she did it so too. Category (NP vs. Adv) Often be NP Often be adverbs However (ad, we (NP)usually(adv) ! PP andAdjP can be both: do(V) our homework (NP) early I rely on reading. (PP, comp) (ADV). I dance on floor. (PP, adjunct) We do our homework. He is discouraged by it. (AdjP, comp) Discouraged by it, he quitted. (AdjP, adjunct) Position (change in meaning) Change in position = change in Change in position does not meaning effect on meaning; free
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