*Distinguish Complements andAdjuncts: 8 ways
- Licensing, obligatoriness, substitution, category, position, argumenthood,
Licensing (free or not) 1. A certain verb allow No such restriction:
certain complements 1. free to add anything;
(not allow all 2. can have any
complements); preposition in front of
2. have particular (although they are
prepositions (when PC different in meaning
= PP) but you can use them)
I read the letter I read the letter at noon.
*I said the letter I read the letter after noon.
I am interested in it (PC) I read the letter on bus.
*I am interested on it. I read the letter near bus.
I read the letter beside bus.
Obligatoriness (omit or Verbs Requiring a Not requiring, not
not) complement, necessary for necessary, can be omitted
a sentence, cannot be She left because she was
I chase my dream. She left before noon.
*I chase. She left by bus.
Substitution (do-so, too) Do-so must substitute the No such requirement for
internal complement adjunct: do-so, too only
(substitute whole VP – V, substitute V
PC, O); too cannot be
I made it and she did so too.
*I made it and she did it so
Category (NP vs. Adv)