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Midterm Prep (Definitions, Matching, and Short Answers)

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Anne St- Amand

1) Definitions Lecture 1 You should be able to define prescriptivism and descriptivism, and be able to associate a given viewpoint with one or the other Prescriptivism: how people ought to speak; some ways of speaking are better than others Descriptivism: no type of English is better, or more logical or clearer than any other Lecture 2 You should be able to define morpheme The smallest unit of meaning You should be able to define and identify cran- morphemes The bound root morphemes that cannot stand alone (its only when theyre in combination with other morphemes that they have meaning) You should be able to define constituent The words being part of groups (some words have a closer connection with one another than with other words in the sentence) Lecture 3 You should be able to define deictic and anaphoric Deictic (=pointing): pronouns that inflect the nearness of the referent that is either proximal (here, this etc) or distal (there, that) Anaphoric: pronouns that are used to refer back to something that was said Lecture 4 You should be able to define subject and predicate, and be able to split up a sentence accordingly Subject: the agent or doer Predicate: everything else that is not the subject Lecture 5 You should be able to define deferred preposition and identify one in a sentence In inverted wh-questions, the preposition of the sentence is not moved while the noun phrases nested inside of the PP is moved. You should be able to define imprecative and label a sentence accordingly A sub-type of imperative that is used for making insults, curses and abusive comments; the difference from normal imperative is that it lacks an overt subject (no implicit you) such as God damn X Lecture 6 You should be able to define negator and operator, and recognize instances of them Negator: the marking with affixes or words to make the meaning of the sentence negative Operator: some negators that need do-support; auxiliaries, lexical be or have 2) Matching and Short Answers Lecture 1 You should be familiar with the arguments for the importance of studying English grammar Can figure out what someone has to have in their brains to be able to speak English as well as how children get there; typology (grouping languages according to similarities), speech therapy, foreign language learning, etc. You should understand what is meant by dialect, variety, language and native speaker Dialect: we all speak dialects which together make up the English language Native speaker: someone who learned English first, or very early; for linguist, intuitions and judgments of native speakers are data You should know the difference between Standard and non-standard English, and be able to associate them with linguistic features such as double negation, the use of aint, sentence initial prepositions, and the use of whom You should be familiar with the concept of grammaticality, be able to recognize when a sentence is ungrammatical, and be familiar with the * formalism See slides You should know the branches of linguistics, and what each studies Phonetics: inventory of sounds
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