FINAL EXAM REVIEW NOTES

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Published on 30 Jan 2012
School
Department
Course
Second Language Acquisition
How does SLA compare to FLA?
oSLA is conscious vs. FLA unconscious learning
oInterlanguage grammar, grammar influenced by both L1 and L2,
speaker transfers phonology of L1 to L2
oSocial aspects such as cultural codes and rules influence L2 learning,
as well as motivation and how you feel about L2 is crucial to how you
learn L2
Stages in SLA?
oPhonological – easier to learn the unmarked, the forms that are more
commonly found in the world’s languages
oMorphological
oSyntactic
Critical Period Hypothesis
oStudy of 46 native Chinese/Korean speaks who learned ESL showed
ages of arrival between native – 7 years old outperformed 7-39 years
of age
Language teaching approaches
oSynthetic - teaching from the ground up, starting with proper
grammar instructions
oAnalytic – teaching from top down, through speech and content and
extract rules from the input
L2 instructional Methods
oGrammar Translation Approach – reading and translate, poor
results for communicative goals
oDirect Method – focus on speaking and listening, grammar not
explicitly taught
oAudiolingual Method – pattern practice drills and repetition
oCommunicative Approach – focus on communicative competence,
learn via “struggle to communicate”
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oMonitor Model/Natural Approach – Students exposed to a lot of
comprehensible input, not encouraged to speak until ready to do so
Bilingualism
oAdvantages – wider range of linguistic tools for use during speech,
superior communicative sensitivity and acquire other cognitive skills
earlier and faster
oDisadvantages – May have problems switching in context between the
two languages
Code-mixing
oBorrowing – use of a single word from another language, due to not
knowing a word, or no word available in a language
oCalque – word for word translation of something, when the other
language has a different phrase for the meaning
oCode-switching – use of more than one language during a
conversation
Intersentential – “among or between”, plug entire phrases
Intrasentential – “within”, replace words or terms flawlessly
Pidgin and Creole
oPidgin – a temporary, rudimentary language that develops out of a
language contact situation when speakers of different languages need
to communicate (usually 3+)
oCreole – Developed from a pidgin language into a fully-formed
language with native speakers
Language “location” in the brain
oLanguage lateralized in the left side of the brain
oStudies from split-brain experiment showed when corpus callosum was
damaged, patients could not perform linguistic functions with their left
eye/hand (right brain) but could do so with their right eye/hand (left
brain)
Aphasia
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oBroca’s Aphasia – agrammatism - words come out stuttered, but
meaning is delivered (problems with syntax, no problems with
semantics)
oWernicke’s Aphasia – fluent aphasia - words are spoken fluently, but
often have no meaning (no problems with syntax, problems with
semantics)
Syntax
What things must syntactic rules be able to account for?
oAll the sentences we know
oAll the sentence we could know (infinity and productivity/creativity)
Trees
oSyntactic grammaticality =/= semantic grammaticality
Sentence does not need to be true for it to be structurally
(syntactically) grammatical. (ex. The purple usefulness ate an
idea’s shoes)
Constituents
oElements that combine to form a phrase are called constituents (D and
N are constituents of NP)
Phrase Structure Rules
oNP -> (D)(AP) N (XP)
oD -> that, ten, some, the
oVP -> Aux V (XP)
oAux -> modal (may, might, shall, should, will, would), have, be
oAP -> (Deg) A
oAdvP -> (Deg) Adv
oPP -> (Deg) P (XP)
oDeg -> very, so, too, clear, etc.
Ambiguity
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Document Summary

Language teaching approaches: synthetic - teaching from the ground up, starting with proper grammar instructions, analytic teaching from top down, through speech and content and extract rules from the input. Intersentential among or between , plug entire phrases. Syntax: what things must syntactic rules be able to account for, all the sentences we know, all the sentence we could know (infinity and productivity/creativity, trees, syntactic grammaticality =/= semantic grammaticality. Sentence does not need to be true for it to be structurally (syntactically) grammatical. (ex. The purple usefulness ate an idea"s shoes: constituents, elements that combine to form a phrase are called constituents (d and. N are constituents of np: phrase structure rules. > aux v (xp: np, d, vp, aux -> modal (may, might, shall, should, will, would), have, be, ap, advp -> (deg) adv, pp, deg, ambiguity. Sai (subject-auxiliary inversion) auxiliary verb moves from after np to before to form a question (john was singing, was.

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