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Study Chart: Speech disorders


Department
Linguistics
Course Code
LIN228H1
Professor
M.Radisic

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Speech Pathology
-Studies speech defects and their treatment
Speech Pathology Disorders
Disorder Effects
Apraxia -Type: motor programming
-Imprecise articulations
-Difficulty coordinating muscle movements needed
-Capable: laugh, cough, produce semi-automatic stock phrases
-Unaffected: comprehension, reading, writing
Aphonia -Vocal folds do not vibrate
-Cause: laryngectomy (removal)
-Treatment: vibrations created via alternative mechanisms
-Esophageal speech: air swallowed, released so vibration
-Artificial larynx: vibrating device held against throat during
speech
Dysphonia-Difficulty creating vocal fold vibration
Spasmodic
dysphonia
-Larynx tightly held
-Difficulty creating and controlling vocal fold vibration
-Difficulty speaking above whisper
-Unaffected: laughing, coughing
Hypofunctionality of
the vocal folds
-Vocal folds too slack or far apart
-Cause: laryngitis (swelling, inflammation), vocal nodules
-Difficulty voicing
-Effect: hoarse or breathy voice
Hypernasality -Excessive nasalization
-Inability to restrict airflow through nasal cavity
-Velum always lowered – ALL SOUNDS NASAL
-Cause: cleft palate
-Incomplete fusion of palate during prenatal development
Hyponasality -Insufficient nasalization
-No airflow through nasal cavity
-Velum always raised – ALL SOUNDS ORAL
-/m n ŋ/ pronounced as corresponding oral stops
Cleft lip-Incomplete fusion of upper lip
-Difficulty articulating labial sounds
Hearing impairments -Affect feedback speakers need to monitor their speech
-Affects language acquisition process in children
-Difficulty controlling intonation, speech volume
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