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LIN100Y1 Study Guide - Jerky, Saccade

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Psycholinguistics & Neurolinguistics
-The study of language-processing mechanisms
-How word meaning, sentence meaning, and discourse meaning are mentally
-How complex words and sentences are composed in speech
Language processing
-Not observable
-Done unconsciously
Methods of linguistic research
-Field techniques
oSlips of the tongue
Spontaneous speech errors
Researcher has no control over occurrence and frequency
Slips of tongue cannot be elicited
1. Spoonerisms
Ex.You have hissed all my mystery lectures.”
Formation – exchange words’ initial consonants
Significance – pre-planning of speech before articulation
2. Mixing and matching morphemes
Ex.I’d forgot aboutten that.”
Significance – pre-planning of speech before articulation
Significance – morpheme is fundamental unit of English
sentence production
oAffix may remain while stem moves
oStem may remain while affix moves
-Experimental techniques
oMental lexicon
Collection of individual units of words
Different entries stored and linked, to be accessed on a moment’s
1. Lexical decision test
Given word, asked to judge existence of word in English
Mental lexicon must be accessed to do so
Measure response latency and response accuracy
Analysis involves comparing response time to different sets
of stimuli (i.e. nouns versus verbs, abstract versus concrete)
Concerned with organization of lexicon, access of entries
Discover frequency effect
oFor words judged real
oLonger response latency to judge fret than free
Sounds exchanged
Morphemes exchanged
Response latency:
participants response time

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Psycholinguistics & Neurolinguistics
oAssume that longer response latency means more
difficult or complex language processing
oLexicon organized so that frequently used words are
more easily and quickly accessed
Discover pronounciability effect
oFor words judged non-existent
oLonger response latency to judge pronounceable
plib than non-pronounceable nlib
oPhonotactic constraints subconsciously considered
in lexical decisions
oLonger response latency to judge similarly-
sounding phocks than visual and phonological non-
oPhonology automatically activated even when
participant does not pronounce non-word
2. Priming
Word to be judged, the target, preceded by another
stimulus, the prime
Measure extent of influence prime has on lexical judgment
of target
Concerned with linking of entries
Discover priming effect
oSame target, related and unrelated control primes
oTarget-prime related by semantics, orthography,
phonology, morphology
oAssume that words organized in networks
oSeeing related prime activates its lexical
representation and related words’ representations
oFaster response latency after presented with related
prime because target’s representation already
oSentence processing (i.e. reading, listening)
Involves computation, not storage, therefore lexical decision tests
Sentences understood through parsing, the automatic unconscious
analysis of word meaning and syntactic structure
1. Timed-reading experiments
Assume that more time needed for more complex sentence
Given a sentence, word by word
Dependent variable is amount of time before bar pressed
for next word (i.e. word-processing time)
Target: dog
Semantically related prime: cat
-more activation
-ergo faster
Control prime: bat
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