LIN100Y1 Study Guide - Hypercorrection

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Published on 31 Dec 2010
School
UTSG
Department
Linguistics
Course
LIN100Y1
Professor
Page:
of 3
Sociolinguistics
-Study of the relationship between society and language
oHow language structures used in discourse are related to the social roles
and/or situations associated with them
Speech community
-Composed of individuals with common word choice, syntax, and pronunciation
oMembers share sociolinguistic norms about language use
oMembers marked by
Sociolinguistic markers: salient, recognized within community as
having particular social meaning
Sociolinguistic indicators: subtle, below the listener’s radar
oSociolinguistic norms affect markers and indicators
Dialect
-A language variety used by a particular group of people
-Non-standard variety as opposed to a language considered the standard variety
oValue judgment
Variety
-Any subset of a language
-What a speech community speaks
-Synonymous with language
-Value-neutral term
Dialectology
-Systematic study of dialects
Variation
-Linguistic features that can be produced in more than one way
-Ex. pronunciation of ‘th’ in thin, that, and thank
Language variation and change
-Area of linguistics that measures and explains the relationship between social
distinctions and linguistic practice
Which is the dialect? Which is the language?
-Mutual intelligibility
oIndividuals from different places can understand each other
oMutual intelligibile, then considered dialects of one language
oMutually unintelligible does not always declare separate languages
-Political boundaries
oSwedish and Norwegian
Mutually intelligible
Sociolinguistic norms:
social conventions
Sociolinguists study
community’s language,
not the speakers
www.notesolution.com
Considered different languages since found in different countries
oMandarin and Cantonese
Mutually unintelligible
Considered dialects since found in same country
Factors affecting language variation
-Place
oRegional variation
Ex. Canadian English versus American English
Lexical features
oUnique to Canada: riding, tuque, double-double
oRunning shoes rather than sneakers
oTap rather than faucet
oBlinds rather than shades
Pronunciation
oCanadian raising
Pronunciations for /aj/ heard by Americans
as [u]
Rule: aj j / __C [-voice]
Similarly for /aw/ to lesser degree
Rule: aw w / __C [-voice]
Morphology and syntax
oCanadian ‘eh’
Opinion:Nice day, eh?
Exclamation:What a game, eh?
Question:Where did he go, eh?
Narrative:So I was walking home, eh, and
I saw some smoke, eh…”
Fixed expressions:I know, eh?
Commands:Think about it, eh?
Insults:You’re a snob, eh?
-Age
-Class
-Gender
Researching variation
-Traditional technique
oSurveys
Fieldworker interviewer
Time-consuming
Sampling
1 or 2 respondents per community
Stereotypical Canadian oot
and aboot
Participants
dubbed NORMs
Canadian eh carries negative
meaning
www.notesolution.com
Preferably non-mobile older rural males
-On lookout for the unusual
oPrimarily variation in vocabulary and pronunciation
Variable
-Different ways of pronouncing the same thing
Variant
-Each possible way of pronouncing something
oVariant that surfaces likely determined by linguistic factors
-Linguistic variant is dependent variable
oDepends on particular environment
-Independent variables include age, sex, socio-economic class
Apparent time hypothesis
-Change over time can be revealed by comparing the speech of older and younger
speakers at a single time
-Ex. [w] and [h ]
o80 years old – 40% pronounce [w], the rest pronounce [h ]
o14 to 19 years old – 90% pronounce [w], the rest pronounce [h ]
oYounger people pronounce [w], the two sounds merged
oIndependent variable is age
Real-time studies
-Studies that investigate a language over a period of time
-Able to confirm apparent time studies’ findings
-Ex. speakers interviewed in the past are revisited and re-interviewed at present
Distinctions within regional communities revealed by language variation
-Distinctions
oClass
A social distinction in studies of industrialized societies
Occupational prestige as the major indicator of class
Ex.
Social hypercorrection
oEthnicity
oGender
Linguistic
factors: position
in word, voicing
Hypercorrection:
www.notesolution.com

Document Summary

Study of the relationship between society and language: how language structures used in discourse are related to the social roles and/or situations associated with them. Composed of individuals with common word choice, syntax, and pronunciation. Dialect: members share sociolinguistic norms about language use, members marked by.  sociolinguistic markers: salient, recognized within community as having particular social meaning.  sociolinguistic indicators: subtle, below the listener"s radar: sociolinguistic norms affect markers and indicators. A language variety used by a particular group of people. Non-standard variety as opposed to a language considered the standard variety: value judgment. Linguistic features that can be produced in more than one way. Ex. pronunciation of th" in thin, that, and thank. Area of linguistics that measures and explains the relationship between social distinctions and linguistic practice. Mutual intelligibility: individuals from different places can understand each other, mutual intelligibile, then considered dialects of one language, mutually unintelligible does not always declare separate languages.