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LIN100Y1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Adverbial Phrase, Part Of Speech, Complementizer

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Aarondinkin, Elaine Gold
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Midterm Study Guide for LIN100: Lectures 1-6
Defines a grammatical sentence, i.e., if native speakers judge it to be a possible
sentence of their language
Universal Grammar (UG)
Categories, operations shared by all languages; all grammars have lexicon (mental
dictionary) and computational system
Categories of Words
Lexical (‘content words’) Examples
Noun (N) Harry, boy, wheat, policy, moisture, bravery
Verb (V) arrive, discuss, melt, hear, remain, dislike
Adjective (A) good, tall, old, intelligent, beautiful, fond
Adverb (Adv) slowly, quietly, now, always, perhaps
Non-Lexical (‘functional
Determiner (Det) the, a, this, these, no (e.g., no books)
Degree word (Deg) too, so, very, more, quite
Auxiliary (Aux): Modal will, would, can, would, may, must, should
Auxiliary (Aux): Non-modal be, have, do
Conjunction (Con) and, or, but
The category that a word belongs to can vary according to context
oe.g., “I like green parrots.” vs “He parrots my words.”
Approaches to decide which category a word belongs to:
a. Meaning
b. Inflection (affixes)
c. Distribution
oPosition in sentence; relationship to other categories
Substitute a familiar word for an unfamiliar word to help decide on the category.
Phrase Structure

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A sentence is not merely a string or words but instead phrases and constituents that
group words together. The structure of a sentence is binary branching can be
represented using X’ (“X-bar”) structure.
A Structure Blueprint: (where X = N, V, A, etc.)
Note: extra levels can be inserted
the ‘X’
it is the N head of a Noun Phrase (NP); V head of Verb Phrase (VP); similarly AP
and PP
the head is obligatory; a phrase can be made up of a head alone
the X’ level can be excluded if it is not needed; use the X’ level if there are both a
specifier and a complement in the phrase. Otherwise, it can be ommited (but it is
never wrong to leave it in!)
in English, the specifiers are at the left edge of the phrase
includes Determiner (Det) in NP, Adverb (Adv) in VP, Degree (Deg) in AP or PP
a phrase with information about the head
Sentence Structure
Every sentence inclues at least a noun phrase (subject) and a verb phrase (predicate)
How to Draw a Tree
A sentence always starts with Tense Phrase (TP). The head of TP is
tense (T). This position is for either:
a) The tense: past or non-past (+/-Pst)
b) Modal auxiliaries: can, will, must, may, could, should

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1. Analyze the sentence, find the NP (subject), T and VP (predicate)
2. Be clear on the category of each word and how the words group into phrases
3. Ensure that each lexical category have a phrase
4. Draw the basic TP sentence structure, followed by the subject NP structure and
predicate VP structure
5. Modal auxiliaries go in T; non-modal auxiliaries are treated as verbs
Constituents Tests
1. Substitution Test
Substitution of a pronoun is evidence of an NP constituent. For example, in
The men have arrived.
They have arrived.
The men is a NP and can be replaced by they so that They have arrived is also
grammatically correct.
Substitution of do and do so is evidence of a VP constituent. For example,
She likes vinegar on French fries and I do too.
The do replaces the VP.
Substitution of there and then can replace PP with location and time meaning. For
example, in the sentence
My house is on the top of a hill.
My house is there.
There can replace the PP so that the sentence is modified to My house is there.
2. Movement Test
Some constituents can move to the front of the sentence. For example,
He found a gold key on the bed.
On the bed, he found a gold key.
3. Coordination Test
The same constituents are conjoined by conjunctions. For example
The students and the teachers enjoyed the film.
The constituents the students and the teachers are NP joined by and.
She kissed her sister but hugged her mother.
The constituents kissed her sister and hugged her mother are VP joined by but.
Verb Complements
Words are stored in the lexicon (mental dictionary). Category, meaning, pronunciation
are information that must be listed in the lexicon
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