MIE240 Textbook-Study Notes (Midterm I)

6 Pages

Mechanical & Industrial Engineering
Course Code
Jamieson, G., Bina, B., Chen, W.

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MIE240 Textbook/Study Notes: Section I (Midterm I) CHAPTER 1 - Goal of Human Factors (HF): making the human interaction w/ systems one that enhances performance, increases safety, increases user satisfaction - HF: the study of factors + development of tools that facilitate the achievement of the goals of HF - Usability: goals of productivity + error reduction - HF Cycle: o (A) Diagnose the problems + deficiencies in the human-system interaction of a system and define cause of breakdowns o (B) Soln. implementation via TETES: task design, equipment design, training, environmental design, selection - HF is goal-oriented (not content-oriented), cannot be tightly-defined CHAPTER 3 - 6 Stages of HF in Product Life Cycle: o 1) Front End Analysis o 2) Iterative Design o 3) System Production o 4) Implementation + Evaluation o 5) System Operation + Maintenance o 6) System Disposal - Usability Engineering: subfield, embody user-centred design - General Approaches to Design – Usability Engineering: o 1) Early focus on user + tasks o 2) Empirical measurement o 3) Iterative design o 4) Participatory Design - Front-End Analysis: analysis/studies used to understand the users, their needs and the demands of the work situation, includes user analysis, environmental analysis and function + task analysis - Performing Task Analysis: o Define analysis purpose + identify type of data required  Task analysis (cognitive/physical task), task sequence, location + environmental conditions o Collect task data  Via observation, think-aloud verbal protocol, task performance w/ questioning, unstructured/structured interviews, survey/questionnaires  Limits of studying pre-existing technology: fixing only surface problems that exist now, less innovation o Summarize task data  Lists, outlines, matrices, hierarchies, flow charts, timelines, maps o Analyze task data  Network analysis, workload analysis, simulation + modeling, safety analysis, scenario specification - Identify user preferences + requirements: closely-related to market analysis, determine key needs + preferences - Iterative Design + Testing: prototypes, ensure functions of the product to make sure it falls w/in human physical and cognitive abilities. Design stage to identify + evaluate how technology fulfills user needs + task demands (reiterative process) - Providing input for system specifications: o 1) Overall objectives o 2) Performance requirements o 3) Design constraints – should not be soln. driven and creates a design space, considers human-machine system as ONE unit - Quality Function Deployment: makes sure design meets user needs, ie: using House of Quality (weights design features vs. ability it meets user goals + system objectives, 9/3/1 rating scale) - Cost-Benefit Analysis: compares cost of features vs. benefits, can be rated monetarily or 9/3/1 scale. Lower C-B ratio is better. - Trade Off Analysis: determines which design alternative results in best performance. Downside – decision matrices tend to cause focus on features independently and not as an entire design system. - HF Criteria Identification: aka Usability Requirements, specify characteristics that the system should include relating to human performance +safety - Function Allocation: determines which functions to be done by the human (manual) and which by the machine (automatic). Downside – “Leftover Approach”, as machines advance, more and more designs result in leaving humans w/o a true task in the system - Support Materials Development: should (optimally) be done in the beginning but is usually left till end. Ie: user manuals, training programs. Critical to maximize likeliness for user to use these support materials. - Organization Design: training, procedure, staffing changes (managerial factors), changes to equipment, plant layout, safety procedures, job structures. - Macroergonomics: global approach to system design - Prototypes: modeled approximations of final product, used to o Confirm insights formed during front-end analysis o Support in making ideas concrete, provide a communication medium o Allow heuristic evaluation, usability test w/ a physical object, rapid prototyping tools allow for fast modification. - Heuristic Evaluation: analytical evaluation of design characteristics to determine if HF criteria are met. Check usability + safety + comfort. Independent of the user and based on HF guidelines + criteria. Done by more than one HF specialist. - Usability Testing: determines ease of use of the system, have users interact w/ the system and identify HF flaws, includes: o Learnibility o Efficiency o Memorability o Errors (low error rate) o Satisfaction - Final Test + Evaluation: physical testing of system, HF testing of system, data is collected on acceptability, usability, performance of the user/human-machine system CHAPTER 10 - Anthropometry: study + measurement of human body dimensions. Data is used to develop guidelines for heights, clearances, gaps and reaches in the workplace - Variability: o Age: stature increases to age 20-25, decreases from 35-40 o Sex: adult men are larger than women (women are 92% of men’s dimensions), ages 10-12 growth spurt for girls (until 17), 13-15 for boys (until 20) o Racial +Ethnic Group: body size varies greatly between different racial groups o Occupational: differences in body dimensions vary between people working in different workplaces groups. Based on type + amount of physical activity, special physical requirements, self-evaluation + self-selections of those making career choices o Generational + Secular: growth in general population stature over time o Transient Diurnal: body weight can chance 1 kg/day because of changes in body H2) content. Gravity affects height over the day _ measuring posture at different positions yields different results - Statistical Analysis: use normal/Gaussian distribution (mu, omega – aka s) - Percentiles: percentage of the population w/ a body dimension of a certain size or smaller - For a normal distribution, to find percentile: X = mu + F * s (percentile = average + multiplication factor (on Table 10.1, page 248) * standard deviation) - Most data is from military, but limited civilian data available too - Structural (Static) Data: measurements from standard/still positions (ie: statures, should breadth, waist circumferences) - Functional (Dynamic) Data: measurements from working postures (ie: flexion-extension range of wrist motion) - Use of Anthropometric Data in Design: o 1) Determine user population (intended users) o 2) Determine relevant body dimensions to the design problem o 3) Determine percentage of the population to be accommodated – design for extremes, design for adjustable range, design for average o 4) Determine the percentile value of the selected anthropometric dimension  Lower-limit: minimum capacity/size of system (to accommodate biggest users)  Upper-limit: maximum size of system (to accommodate smallest users) o 5)
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