MGY200 Midterm Study Sheet

13 Pages
Unlock Document

Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Deborah Cowen

MGY200 Midterm Study Sheet Page1 Introdcution y Genetics field of science that endeavours to reveal which genes govern which developmental event andor biological function y Mendel o Pea plant genetic analysiso Law of segregation First lawIndividual has 2 alleles for a genetic element that specifies a traitAlleles are separately and randomly packaged into gametes o Law of Independent Assortment second lawGenetic elements packaged into gamete independently of other genetic elementsOnly true if genetic elements not closely linked on chromosome o Work rediscovered in 1900 y SuttonBoveri Chromosome Theory of Inheritanceo Prof Sutton worked with Brachystola magna and Prof Boveri worked with sea urchins o Chromosomes exist in pairs with each pair from a different parent o Pairs are different from one another o During meiosis each pair orient randomly with respect to spindle poles and other pairs o During meiosis pairs separatey Wilson and Nettie confirmed xysex determination hypothesisy Prof Morgan o Looked at Drosophila melanogaster o Learned about gene behaviour and used Netties xysex determination hypothesis to show that traits lie on chromosomesSexlimited inheritanceo Worked with Calvin Bridges y Did work on nondisjunctiony Used that as proof of chromosome theory of heredityAlfred Sturtevant y Created first genetic linkage mapHerman Muller y Worked with radiation on genes y Complementation Two mutant genes complement to show that they are not on the same gene o Eg D melanogaster eye coloursFound that Cinnibar CN mutant was epistatic to Vermillion V which was epistatic to Claret CA P CM and RBHence one gene one enzymey Beadle and Tatum One geneOne enzyme theory o All biochemical processes in all organisms are under genetic control MGY200 Midterm Study Sheet Page2 o These overall biochemical processes are resolvable into series of individual stepwise reactions o Each single reaction controlled in primary fashion by single gene o Mutation of single gene results only in alteration in ability of cell to carry out a single primary chemical reaction o Imaginal disks Tissue in larva that develop into adult organs o They worked with Neurospora crassa a fungiIsolated axotrophic mutants requires defined nutrient B6 to grow y Avery Macleod McCarty experiment o Griffith originally found rough and smooth strains of Pneumococcal phages o Rough nonvirulent strain in mouse mouse lives o Smooth virulent strain in mousemouse dies o Heatkilled smooth strain in mousemouse lives o Rough strain and heatkilled smooth strain mouse dies o Therefore there must have been some genetic transfusion of smooth viral DNA into rough one and this could be done even if strain was killed y Hershey Chase experiment o One batch of phage grown with radioactive proteinInfect bacteria and see where radioactivity is o One batch of phage grown with radioactive DNANoted that radioactivity stayed in bacteria So DNA is responsible for phage multiplication and not protein y Watson and Crick o Discovered helical shape of DNA DNA Protein y Nucleic acid discovered in nuclei of y First report of elemental composition leukocyte Miescher 1869 Mulder 1838 y 5 nucleobases A CG T U discovered y First proteinogenic amino acid Asp Kossel 18851901 discovered by Vauquelin and Robiquet 1806 y Nature of nucleotide unit recognized Levene 1919 also promoted idea that y Last of 20 amino acids discovered Rose 1935 DNA was teranucleotide y Linear nature of peptide chain revealed y DNA is macromolecule Signer Sanger 1949 with work on insulin Caspersson Hammarsten 1938 y Secondary structure of protein inferred by y Avery MacLeod McCarty experiment Pauling 1951 1944 y Hershey Chase experiment 1952 y DNA structure by Watson and Crick 1953Fall of Superman y Spinal cord injury
More Less

Related notes for MGY299Y1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.