MGY200 Midterm Study Sheet

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Department
Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
Course
MGY299Y1
Professor
Deborah Cowen
Semester
Winter

Description
MGY200 Midterm Study Sheet Page1 Introdcution y Genetics field of science that endeavours to reveal which genes govern which developmental event andor biological function y Mendel o Pea plant genetic analysiso Law of segregation First lawIndividual has 2 alleles for a genetic element that specifies a traitAlleles are separately and randomly packaged into gametes o Law of Independent Assortment second lawGenetic elements packaged into gamete independently of other genetic elementsOnly true if genetic elements not closely linked on chromosome o Work rediscovered in 1900 y SuttonBoveri Chromosome Theory of Inheritanceo Prof Sutton worked with Brachystola magna and Prof Boveri worked with sea urchins o Chromosomes exist in pairs with each pair from a different parent o Pairs are different from one another o During meiosis each pair orient randomly with respect to spindle poles and other pairs o During meiosis pairs separatey Wilson and Nettie confirmed xysex determination hypothesisy Prof Morgan o Looked at Drosophila melanogaster o Learned about gene behaviour and used Netties xysex determination hypothesis to show that traits lie on chromosomesSexlimited inheritanceo Worked with Calvin Bridges y Did work on nondisjunctiony Used that as proof of chromosome theory of heredityAlfred Sturtevant y Created first genetic linkage mapHerman Muller y Worked with radiation on genes y Complementation Two mutant genes complement to show that they are not on the same gene o Eg D melanogaster eye coloursFound that Cinnibar CN mutant was epistatic to Vermillion V which was epistatic to Claret CA P CM and RBHence one gene one enzymey Beadle and Tatum One geneOne enzyme theory o All biochemical processes in all organisms are under genetic control MGY200 Midterm Study Sheet Page2 o These overall biochemical processes are resolvable into series of individual stepwise reactions o Each single reaction controlled in primary fashion by single gene o Mutation of single gene results only in alteration in ability of cell to carry out a single primary chemical reaction o Imaginal disks Tissue in larva that develop into adult organs o They worked with Neurospora crassa a fungiIsolated axotrophic mutants requires defined nutrient B6 to grow y Avery Macleod McCarty experiment o Griffith originally found rough and smooth strains of Pneumococcal phages o Rough nonvirulent strain in mouse mouse lives o Smooth virulent strain in mousemouse dies o Heatkilled smooth strain in mousemouse lives o Rough strain and heatkilled smooth strain mouse dies o Therefore there must have been some genetic transfusion of smooth viral DNA into rough one and this could be done even if strain was killed y Hershey Chase experiment o One batch of phage grown with radioactive proteinInfect bacteria and see where radioactivity is o One batch of phage grown with radioactive DNANoted that radioactivity stayed in bacteria So DNA is responsible for phage multiplication and not protein y Watson and Crick o Discovered helical shape of DNA DNA Protein y Nucleic acid discovered in nuclei of y First report of elemental composition leukocyte Miescher 1869 Mulder 1838 y 5 nucleobases A CG T U discovered y First proteinogenic amino acid Asp Kossel 18851901 discovered by Vauquelin and Robiquet 1806 y Nature of nucleotide unit recognized Levene 1919 also promoted idea that y Last of 20 amino acids discovered Rose 1935 DNA was teranucleotide y Linear nature of peptide chain revealed y DNA is macromolecule Signer Sanger 1949 with work on insulin Caspersson Hammarsten 1938 y Secondary structure of protein inferred by y Avery MacLeod McCarty experiment Pauling 1951 1944 y Hershey Chase experiment 1952 y DNA structure by Watson and Crick 1953Fall of Superman y Spinal cord injury
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