mgy377 midterm study notes.doc

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Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
William Navarre

Bacteria vs VirusBACTERIAVIRUSMicroscopicMicroscopiccellular organismnot cellularsingle cellscell clustersessentially nucleic acid DNARNA wrapped in protein or lipidprotein coat1 have metabolismdont have a metabolismtake up chemicals from environrequire help of cells to replicate convert them into biomassenergytheir genomesmake progenyexcrete waste productsdue to simple structure dont have contain lipids proteins sugars and metabolites and cant repro themselves nucleic acids RNA and DNA thatmake use of hosthelp direct their metabolism can evolvemuch more rapid evolution rate bc hard to control 2 reproduce autonomouslychanges in influenza take simple chemicals from environ to generate more complex ones eg take simple carbon source and convert to higher complex molecules3 can differentiate many can generate new cells thats strikingly diff than parental cell4 can communicatecoordinate w 1 another most can communicate by chemical signalling5 can move autonomously many possess flagellaother cell struct to help move6 can sense their environrespond either directly by changing genes they express to adapt to environ and increase their survival7 can evolve change over time to both gain new properties and lose old ones generation time quite rapidin addn to adapting ot new environ have genetic mutations that change genetic components
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