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University of Toronto St. George
Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
William Navarre

15 General concepts testedChemostat is continuous culture devicedensity adjust by changing nutrient media canot control both growth rate and population density together10 000 left if start with 1 000 000 and heat for 2DD depends on temperature Bacteria live in social environmentinteract with one anotherNo function in lab when grown in monoculturebacteria do not live in monoculturemultiple species living togetherStudying something in lab condition can give biased point of viewdisgarding things as irrevevlant that are VERY important in natural environmentnew era of genomics trying to break out of this monoculture viewpointBIOFILMS one of first things Make own adhesions polysacchardies matrixnot passive sticking to surface Most bacteria growing on rocks toilets teethsurfacesWhen growing in flask conditions called PLANKTONICCommunity orientedand swimming lifestyletwo differentGene programs different btw these two statesDecision made by planktonic bacteria swimming around lands on surfce gene expression changes makes decision to grow differently Biofilmcommunicating organizationFruiting bodiesmade decision to act as groupbacteria have this capacity Pipe corrosion and clogged pipesbacteria stick Toilet biofilmProblemcant just add antibiotics to get rid of biofilm cannot add bleach tooBiofilms REALLY RESISTANT TO DISINFECTIONnot easy to cureproblem in hospitals Hospital infectionsnosocomial infectionscoming from devices implanted in skin like catheters needle for IV dripBacteria grow on this thingsreplace with new oneBiofilms chew thorugh lead nickel copper when water flows over themcleansing waterOther bacteria in gutmake biiofilms help protect from food poisoning Plants need nitrogencarbon from carbon dioxideorganic resusable nitrogen from bacteria in soilAir contains N2not usable for lifeCell needs N2 made into ammoniacalled nitrogen fixing bacteria live in soilthese bacteria grow as biofilm on root hairs of plantsRight picturebacteria stained red Compete for nutrients and block binding sites from pathogenswant to stick to intestinal epithelial surface cant because other bacteria theremechanical displacementSterile mice dont develop normal immune systemswithout bacteria exposure defective immune system
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