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Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course
NMC101H1
Professor
Zoe Mc Quinn
Semester
Fall

Description
Key Points of Lecture 1Egyptian GeographyEgypt has three major areas of contact Asia Nubia Africa And is across the Mediterranean from EuropeBut it also has buffer zones which limit direct contact causing them to flourish in their securityThe MediterraneanThe Lybian Sudanese and Arabian DesertstAmri Tameri The land of the hoeAn allusion to the ability to grow food thereoften there is a concern regarding access to food in the ancient worldTAwi tawi the two landsDuality is very important in Egyptian religion and society emphasis on balanced parts of a system where you cant have one without the otherkmt kemet the black landMeaning that it is fertileDesert Deshret the red landthere is death in the deserttASmAw tashemau land of the reedsreferring to Upper EgyptThe Nile and the riverlandsOften represented by reedstAmhw tamehu land of papyrusreferring to Lower EgyptThe nile area was geographically different from Egyptit was a lush green land with flourishing cropsDelta was always lush and fertilenbw nebu goldRefers to NubiawADwr wadjwer the great bluegreenReferring to the Mediterranean OceanThe ocean was a little scary to themiTrw ichru the riverOnly one word for the Nile which is at odds with the rest of their vocabEgyptian Concept of the UniverseAncient Egyptians thought that Egypt was the centre of the UniverseNun the watersShu the air or atmosphereNut the sky Geb the earthDuat the underworldRa the sunAkhet the horizonTogether they form a bubble surrounded by water expanded by air with the sky as the shucircumference held up by The heavens and the earth are marriedHeavens are female Earth is male If they were to meet the world would be destroys so shu stands between them 2 lives you inhabit the Earth in your first life then upon Death you join Osiris in the West and Duat to begin your second lifemove downwards to the To die in your second life means to die foreverthis should be avoidedThe Sun gives all lifethe beetle god is the symbolic of the young sun or the sun rising in the morning Kepre remember the beetle and the poo Beetles feed on poo and are born in poo egyptians thought of the sun as a big ball of poo being pushed through the sky by a beetle YuckRa the sun at its strongest and most powerfulAkhet the old creator god representing the dying setting sun the sun at its weakest pointThe horizon separates our lives it is where the sun sets and rises The Horizon is a contact point and the time when the sun sets or rises is magical and dangerousSocietyEgypt is a hydraulic civilization Without the nile it would not existEvery year like clockwork the Nile floodedNo matter how bad it is in Egypt it is still better than anywhere in time of famineMeasuring yearly flood is vitalCannot be too high or too lowNeed it to be consistentFluctuations can be dangerousNileometer measures flooding and dates from the Early DynasticHow the Nile floods determines historyCalendarsAgricultural CalendarDivided the year into 12 months and 3 seasonsAxtAkhet the inundation from midJuly to midNovemberprtPeret literally coming forth the growing season from mid November to midMarchSmuShemu harvest time and the hottest time from midMarch to midJulyEach season was 4 months of 30 daysSolar and Lunar calendars celestial calendarsOf which the heliacal rising the rising of the dog star Sirius is of major importanceRegnal CalendarsProblems with this include coregencies in which 2 kings reign simultaneouslyClimate and Historical FrameworkDuring the Paleolithic period around 400000 BC in North East Africa the climate is very wet Not many people lived near the Nile source as they didnt necessarily need to as food was easily come byLater at around 25000 BC there is an onset of direr climate and people are forced into a smaller area around the Nile A more densely packed population changes how people deal with one anotherFrom 10000 BC to 5000 BC during the Mesolithic period we start to see domestication as an alternative food source to hunting and gatheringThen at 6000 BC there is a gradual moistening of the climate leading to a growth spurt populationwiseResourcesEgypt has unlimited access to stone and has a vast amount of mineral wealthThose things imported included resources such as wood precious stones and metals lapis lazuli from Afghanistan and Assyrian silver as well as cretan olive oilEssentially they valued anything that wasnt native to EgyptGovernment and Social StructurePharaohTerm not used till New KingdomLiving pharaoh called nTr nfr good godDeceased pharaoh called nTr aA great godGods are always great king does not reach that status until deathSole and absolute rulerOn behalf of all he keeps the universe safeThe name of the pharaoh is very powerfulFivefold titulary from the 5th Dynasty onwardHorus name represents kings identity as Horus god of sky Written and contained in apalace Personification of Pharaoh as a guy who lives in the palace who is serekhHorus2 ladies name where the vulture represents Upper Egypt and the Cobra represents Lower EgyptGolden Horus name which only comes into play in the 4th dynastyPrenomen which is written in a cartouche It is also called a throne nameNomen which is given at birthVizierUsually 1 sometimes 2 for the two landsAnswers only tot he kingIn charge of all projects of the kingNomarchRulers of nomes which are geographical divisionsBureaucracy of OfficialsSemi to fully literate
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