Sites: Abydos (First Kings’ Cemetaries) , Memphis (Center of Administration), Buto (Cult goddess
Neith of the Hunt), Hierakonopolis (City of Horus)
Last King of Dynasty 0
The First Uniter of Egypt
Married Queen of the North, had a child Aha
First King of Dynasty 1
Son of Narmer and Menes
Buried in Abydos
First identifiable human sacrifice
30 around him, 12 outside
Poison- bowls, suffocation- teeth, combo deal
Most people buried in a human sacrifice: 580
Has a comb
Sources: Agree on number of Kings but not the order. 74 Years.
Imhotep builds his temple palace.
Daughter marries Snefru
Overview: Family of Snefru, lasts 150 years
Government: Center of administration is at the palace. Aim is to supply the king’s court
with food to maintain the King Cult.
Vizier is the highest position: organizes administration
Not all of Egypt included, everything outside the immediate region is provincial
Government in Provinces:
Active local bureaucracy and built their own tombs
2 theories of this administration: Loose and Tight
Provincial administration is under control of local chiefs. Central
government received dues but otherwise they were left to their own
devices at local level Tight System
Central government has all the power. Everyone at the provincial level
appointed by the pharaoh and vizier. They have personal contact with
Burial Architecture and Traditions: Very few historical records. Standard features: Valley
Temple, Causeway, Boundary Wall, central Structure, cult Pyramid
Religion: Cult of the King-idea of the divine monarch. The king guarantees stability and
prosperity of country.
Heliopolis Memphis religious centres: local gods still important, the belief and worship
at local temples are the root of religion on old Kingdom.
Attempt to hierarchically order concepts of creation and cosmology: how world is
ordered, created, what the universe is—hints but doesn’t understand how. King is
Campaign against Nubia—Snefru
Trade with Byblos—amny objects with names of Egyptian kings (khafre) found in
Not born Royal, married Huni’s daughter.
Perfected Pyramid building: Bent Pyramid at Meidum, Red Pyramid of Dashur
Trade: Cedar from Lebanon
Military: Active campaigns into Nubia—Stronghold at Elephantine
His heir is not his oldest Son: We know this from his tomb.
Snefru’s second son and heir
Royal residence moved to Giza: Built his Pyramid there.
Great Pyramid: 3 queens’ pyramids. Temple of Hetepheres: Huni’s Daughter,
Snefru’s Wife, Khufu’s mother= SHE IS IMPORTANT! Powerful woman related to