NMC343Study Part 1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

Dynasty 1 Sites: Abydos (First Kings’ Cemetaries) , Memphis (Center of Administration), Buto (Cult goddess Neith of the Hunt), Hierakonopolis (City of Horus) Narmer Last King of Dynasty 0 The First Uniter of Egypt Narmer Pallet Married Queen of the North, had a child Aha Aha-Menes First King of Dynasty 1 Son of Narmer and Menes Buried in Abydos First identifiable human sacrifice 30 around him, 12 outside Poison- bowls, suffocation- teeth, combo deal Djer Most people buried in a human sacrifice: 580 Djet Has a comb Dynasty 2 Dynasty 3 Sources: Agree on number of Kings but not the order. 74 Years. Djoser Imhotep builds his temple palace. Sekhemkhet Kaba Sanakht/Nebka Huni Daughter marries Snefru Dynasty 4 Overview: Family of Snefru, lasts 150 years Government: Center of administration is at the palace. Aim is to supply the king’s court with food to maintain the King Cult. Vizier is the highest position: organizes administration Not all of Egypt included, everything outside the immediate region is provincial Government in Provinces: Active local bureaucracy and built their own tombs 2 theories of this administration: Loose and Tight Loose System Provincial administration is under control of local chiefs. Central government received dues but otherwise they were left to their own devices at local level Tight System Central government has all the power. Everyone at the provincial level appointed by the pharaoh and vizier. They have personal contact with them. Burial Architecture and Traditions: Very few historical records. Standard features: Valley Temple, Causeway, Boundary Wall, central Structure, cult Pyramid Religion: Cult of the King-idea of the divine monarch. The king guarantees stability and prosperity of country. Heliopolis Memphis religious centres: local gods still important, the belief and worship at local temples are the root of religion on old Kingdom. Attempt to hierarchically order concepts of creation and cosmology: how world is ordered, created, what the universe is—hints but doesn’t understand how. King is central Economic Activities: Campaign against Nubia—Snefru Trade with Byblos—amny objects with names of Egyptian kings (khafre) found in Israel/Palestine Kings: Snefru Not born Royal, married Huni’s daughter. Perfected Pyramid building: Bent Pyramid at Meidum, Red Pyramid of Dashur Trade: Cedar from Lebanon Military: Active campaigns into Nubia—Stronghold at Elephantine His heir is not his oldest Son: We know this from his tomb. Khufu Snefru’s second son and heir Royal residence moved to Giza: Built his Pyramid there. Great Pyramid: 3 queens’ pyramids. Temple of Hetepheres: Huni’s Daughter, Snefru’s Wife, Khufu’s mother= SHE IS IMPORTANT! Powerful woman related to
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