Study Notes.docx

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Senusret III
Son of Senusret II (ASASSAAS)
39 year reign, 20 year co-regency
Huge ears, kind, caring pharaoh portrayal.
Deified in his lifetime.
Decline of nomarch power.
Many military campaigns, esp into Nubia (4).
First mud-brick pyramid (Mansion of Millions of Years). Collapses around
year 20. Instead, builds at Abydos. NO MORE pyramid. Mortuary temple.
o Break with tradition mortuary temple not close to burial site.
o Highlighting tradition associating himself with Osiris.
o FIRST TIME king hides his burial site. HUGE departure.
o Anubis is now protector of royal cemeteries.
Amenemhat III
Son of Senusret III.
46 year reign. Unknown co-regency length.
Highly centralized government
Greatest king of 12th dynasty.
Abydos important site of worship.
o TEST QUESTION: Shwabti/Ushwbti: magical servant statues that
come to life and do your work for you in the afterlife.
o Nubia: gold
o Sinai: copper and turquoise
o Egypt: stone, semiprecious stone, gold. Lots of minerals.
Many building projects. To remind people who’s king. Can do this bc no wars.
o Hawara el-Makta. Labyrinth.
o Sobek (crocodile head goddess) also worshipped here.
Amenemhat IV
9 years ≤ reign.
Trade. Esp at Byblos (TIMBER). Connected to Mediterranean (oil, wine).
Last ruler of 12th dynasty. Woman. Just over 3 year reign. In Turin Canon.
Sister of A4. But stresses link to father A3.
Pyramid? Unsure.
Military campaigns
12th dynasty Capital: Itjtawy
Trade in 12th dynasty
o Semna dispatches. Daily updates to king. Fort life.
o TEST QUESTION: Near East, Crete, and Cyprus: get TIMBER, WINE,
and OLIVE OIL. Also bitumen, other resins.
o Silver valued higher than gold.
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o Senusret II. Town called “Hetep Senwosret”.
o Archaeological evidence of what happens in an E town.
Provincial society
o Strong at beginning, declines over 12th century.
o Tombs of nomarchs (esp Beni Hasan) show independence and what
they liked to do in everyday life (think image for test). Hunting often
for mythical creatures. Powerful creatures of the afterlife.
Provincial society: religion
o Abydos Osiris. Becomes pilgrimage site.
afterlife, not just king.
Sahathor block statue of him. Draws the eye, which blesses
Sahathor. Helps get him into the afterlife.
ON TEST: Stela of Ikhernofret. Bio came to Abydos to enact all
rites and rituals of the Osiris cult. First passion play. Insight
into what was going on at Abydos.
o Elephantine
Cult of Hekaib. Deified and non-royal (RARE).
He was governor at the end of OK. Revenges the death of an
Egyptian official after a raid on his group from Elephantine to
the Red Sea. Deified by 11th dynasty. By 12th, important
pilgrimage site. Community worship (in addition to state
13th dynasty Itjtawy, too. Then Thebes?
Why does strong unified Egypt of 12th dynasty fall apart?
o 13th dynasty no break from 12th. Though names are foreign.
o Foreign rulers?
o Many kings, short reigns. Half-way through, waning power and no
unified Egypt.
Sobekhotep IV best attested ruler. Loses Nubia. Itjtawy not
capitol anymore?
o North ruled by Hyksos, South by traditional Egyptian kingship.
o Egypt weak. No mining in Sinai.
o Art continuation of 12th dynasty style. BUT kings not sad. Smirking.
Statue of Sobekemsauf (Armant) old, successful official. Long
kilt and big belly. Vizier. Sister married king.
As time goes on, the quality of artwork degrades.
o Late 13th Dynasty move capitol from Itjtawy to Thebes. Don’t know
o Succession no clear pattern father to son or brother to brother?
o ON TEST: Waret = administration.
Three sections: Bureau for the distribution of manpower,
White house (treasury), Head of the south.
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o Papyrus Boulaq 18 about banking system for standards of trade. i.e.
exchange rate for bartering system.
o Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446 law case. About how pharaoh comes
after you if you don’t pay the pharaoh the service you owe him.
14th Dynasty
Only know three names of kings: Nehsy Aasehre, Nerdjafare, Sekheperenre
13 kings of SIP with foreign names, only known from seals.
o After fall of Itjtawy and after Hyksos conquer the north (15th dynasty),
we have the 17th dynasty ruling from Thebes.
Dynasty 15 Hyksos (=rulers of foreign countries). Avaris (Tell el Dab’a).
Who were they?
o Definitely western Semitic. Amorites (Syria)?
o Infiltration, not invasion.
o Reign characterized by TRADE.
o Big on vassal states, rather than direct rule. Not centralized.
o Religion: Seth as state god. God of thunder. Others are still
worshipped, but kings aren’t maintaining temples of the gods.
o Apophis (Apepi) changes name often. Has 3 prenomen. Not a big
builder, but put his name on old monuments, makes himself as
immortal as them.
o Khamudi lost Hyksos empire. After him, 18th dynasty.
Dynasty 17 - Thebes
Ruling at same time as 15th dynasty
o Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw. First. Says temples aren’t being taken
care of.
o Intefmose and Sobkemsaf. Don’t know who came first. Think S.
S instigated a revitalization of the temple of Montu at
o Sobkemsaf II tomb robbed. Thin waist statue, traditional headdress.
o Sekhemre Wepmaat Intef linking to past by using “Intef”. Gold coffin
from images.
o Nubkheperre Intef works at temple at Koptos (duty as king). Koptos
decree of him punishes someone for stealing from temples.
o Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef short reign. Bad burial bc no time to
o Senakhtenre Ahmose imported Tura limestone (from Hyksos
region). Married to Tetisheri, who is venerated by Ahmose I (first king
of 18th dynasty). Seems 15th and 17th dynasties are getting along at
this point.
War between 15th and 17th dynasties
Quarrel of Aaussera Apepi and Sekenenre Ta’o (skull from images)
o Papyrus Sallier I north writes to south to get them to shut up their
hippos, or north will do it for them. Picking a fight.
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