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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Zoe Mc Quinn

Senusret III  Son of Senusret II (ASASSAAS)  39 year reign, 20 year co-regency  Huge ears, kind, caring pharaoh portrayal.  Deified in his lifetime.  Decline of nomarch power.  Many military campaigns, esp into Nubia (4).  First mud-brick pyramid (Mansion of Millions of Years). Collapses around year 20. Instead, builds at Abydos. NO MORE pyramid. Mortuary temple. o Break with tradition – mortuary temple not close to burial site. o Highlighting tradition – associating himself with Osiris. o FIRST TIME king hides his burial site. HUGE departure. o Anubis is now protector of royal cemeteries. Amenemhat III  Son of Senusret III.  46 year reign. Unknown co-regency length.  Highly centralized government  Greatest king of 12 dynasty.  Abydos important site of worship. o TEST QUESTION: Shwabti/Ushwbti: magical servant statues that come to life and do your work for you in the afterlife.  Mining o Nubia: gold o Sinai: copper and turquoise o Egypt: stone, semiprecious stone, gold. Lots of minerals.  Many building projects. To remind people who’s king. Can do this bc no wars.  Pyramid o Hawara el-Makta. Labyrinth. o Sobek (crocodile head goddess) also worshipped here. Amenemhat IV  9 years ≤ reign.  Trade. Esp at Byblos (TIMBER). Connected to Mediterranean (oil, wine). Sobekneferu  Last ruler of 12 dynasty. Woman. Just over 3 year reign. In Turin Canon.  Sister of A4. But stresses link to father A3.  Pyramid? Unsure.  Military campaigns 12 dynasty – Capital: Itjtawy th  Trade in 12 dynasty o Semna dispatches. Daily updates to king. Fort life. o TEST QUESTION: Near East, Crete, and Cyprus: get TIMBER, WINE, and OLIVE OIL. Also bitumen, other resins. o Silver valued higher than gold.  Lahun o Senusret II. Town called “Hetep Senwosret”. o Archaeological evidence of what happens in an E town.  Provincial society o Strong at beginning, declines over 12 century. o Tombs of nomarchs (esp Beni Hasan) show independence and what they liked to do in everyday life (think image for test). Hunting often for mythical creatures. Powerful creatures of the afterlife.  Provincial society: religion o Abydos – Osiris. Becomes pilgrimage site.  DEMOCRATIZATION OF THE AFTERLIFE. Everyone can go to afterlife, not just king.  Sahathor – block statue of him. Draws the eye, which blesses Sahathor. Helps get him into the afterlife.  ON TEST: Stela of Ikhernofret. Bio – came to Abydos to enact all rites and rituals of the Osiris cult. First passion play. Insight into what was going on at Abydos. o Elephantine  Cult of Hekaib. Deified and non-royal (RARE).  He was governor at the end of OK. Revenges the death of an Egyptian official after a raid on his group from Elephantine to the Red Sea. Deified by 11 dynasty. By 12 , important pilgrimage site. Community worship (in addition to state worship). th 13 dynasty – Itjtawy, too. Then Thebes?  Why does strong unified Egypt of 12 dynasty fall apart? o 13 dynasty – no break from 12 . Though names are foreign. o Foreign rulers? o Many kings, short reigns. Half-way through, waning power and no unified Egypt.  Sobekhotep IV best attested ruler. Loses Nubia. Itjtawy not capitol anymore? o North ruled by Hyksos, South by traditional Egyptian kingship. o Egypt weak. No mining in Sinai. o Art – continuation of 12 dynasty style. BUT kings not sad. Smirking.  Statue of Sobekemsauf (Armant) – old, successful official. Long kilt and big belly. Vizier. Sister married king.  As time goes on, the quality of artwork degrades. o Late 13 Dynasty – move capitol from Itjtawy to Thebes. Don’t know why. o Succession – no clear pattern – father to son or brother to brother?  Sources o ON TEST: Waret = administration.  Three sections: Bureau for the distribution of manpower, White house (treasury), Head of the south. o Papyrus Boulaq 18 – about banking system for standards of trade. i.e. exchange rate for bartering system. o Papyrus Brooklyn 35.1446 – law case. About how pharaoh comes after you if you don’t pay the pharaoh the service you owe him. 14 Dynasty  Only know three names of kings: Nehsy Aasehre, Nerdjafare, Sekheperenre  13 kings of SIP with foreign names, only known from seals. o After fall of Itjtawy and after Hyksos conquer the north (15 dynasty), we have the 17 dynasty ruling from Thebes. Dynasty 15 – Hyksos (=rulers of foreign countries). Avaris (Tell el Dab’a).  Who were they? o Definitely western Semitic. Amorites (Syria)? o Infiltration, not invasion. o Reign characterized by TRADE. o Big on vassal states, rather than direct rule. Not centralized. o Religion: Seth as state god. God of thunder. Others are still worshipped, but kings aren’t maintaining temples of the gods.  Rulers: o Apophis (Apepi) – changes name often. Has 3 prenomen. Not a big builder, but put his name on old monuments, makes himself as immortal as them. o Khamudi – lost Hyksos empire. After him, 18 dynasty. Dynasty 17 - Thebes th  Ruling at same time as 15 dynasty  Kings: o Rahotep Sekhemrewahkhaw. First. Says temples aren’t being taken care of. o Intefmose and Sobkemsaf. Don’t know who came first. Think S.  S instigated a revitalization of the temple of Montu at Medamud. o Sobkemsaf II – tomb robbed. Thin waist statue, traditional headdress. o Sekhemre Wepmaat Intef – linking to past by using “Intef”. Gold coffin from images. o Nubkheperre Intef – works at temple at Koptos (duty as king). Koptos decree of him – punishes someone for stealing from temples. o Sekhemre-Heruhirmaat Intef – short reign. Bad burial bc no time to prepare. o Senakhtenre Ahmose – imported Tura limestone (from Hyksos region). Married to Tetisheri, who is venerated by Ahmose I (first king of 18 dynasty). Seems 15 and 17 dynasties are getting along at this point. War between 15 and 17 dynasties  Quarrel of Aaussera Apepi and Sekenenre Ta’o (skull from images) o Papyrus Sallier I – north writes to south to get them to shut up their hippos, or north will do it for them. Picking a fight. o Mummy of Sekenenre Ta’o – hastily buried. Got axed in the head. Killed, then taken to Hyksos king and ritually executed. But then return body to family for proper burial. o Archaeological evidence south is starting to fortify. Temple and fort construction. Garrisons up the Nile.  Kamose o Last king of 17 dynasty o Succeeds Sekenenre Ta’o. Courtiers not happy about the wars (Carnarvon Tablet) o Several wars: against Kush, against Hyksos (by using Medjay - Nubians). Didn’t get as far as Lower Egypt. o Second Stela of Kamose: Hyksos ask king of Kush for help, but Kamose intercepts letter. o Lost his mummy (left on debris pile). Have coffin. 18 dynasty  Executed Male at Mut precinct at Karnak – likely Hyksos king, sacrificed.  Hyksos impact o Egypt benefitted from trade routes they established, including southern Levant and Cyprus (Egyptians become much more involved in Mediterranean from this point on). o Technical innovations: Ceramic (different forms, new materials), metal industries (copper + tin = bronze – better smelting methods.) o War innovations: HORSE-DRAWN WAR CHARIOTS with spoked wheels (Hyksos introduce E to horse, triumphant king on a chariot); composite bows (stronger bow that shoots further and hits harder).  Ahmose o First king of 18 dynasty o Warrior king (important title).  3 Nubian rebellions.  Expels the Hyksos. o Gets throne young. Mother Ahhotep is regent. Father Sekenenre Ta’o 2 o Revered as a Uniter of Egypt (with Mentuhotep II and Menes Aha) o Rhind Mathematical Papyrus – Ahmose kicks the Hyksos out of Egypt.  He goes around Memphis and Avaris and cuts off Hyksos supply routes to isolate them. Conquer probably a long siege. o Ahmose’s temple at Abydos  Source of must of our info about conquest. Scene of pharaoh riding triumphant over his enemies, the Hyksos. o Women  Ahhotep I. Mother and regent for Ahmose. Daughter of Tetisheri. Sister and royal wife of Sekenenre Ta’o. Highly honoured by Ahmose.  Ahhotep II. Kamose’s wife? Sister of Amenhotep? Beautiful, military stuff in tomb.  HEADDRESS: Hathor curl (stick figure girl hair). Links royal women to goddess Hathor. Very popular style.  Ahmose-Nefertari (image!). Daughter of Sekenenre Tao and Aahotep. Mother of Amenhotep I (regent?). Royal sister and great royal wife. GOD’S WIFE OF AMUN – lots of power and wealth. Deified after her death. o Tempest Stela of Ahmose – huge rains, flooding, cause major damage. Because statue of god was neglected. Theban area.  Ahmose, son of Ibana (see image). o Professional soldier from El Kab. o One of most important sources for understanding the kings of the 18 th dynasty.  Served under Ahmose (Avaris, siege of Sharuhen, Nubian rebellions), Amenhotep I (Nubians), and Tuthmose I (Nubians, Naharin).  Seems Hyksos agreed to a treaty – they’ll leave Egypt, never to return.  Got reward (Gold of Praise) for cutting off two hands.  Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet o Also professional soldier from el-Kab. Wife is royal nurse to a queen? o Served under: Ahmose (Canaan), Amenhotep I (Nubia), Thutmose I (Naharin), Thutmose II (Sinai),  Know Ahmose’s reign not stable. Goes between N and S to fight. o Royal tutor for Neferure (Hatshepsut)  Amenhotep I o Son of Ahmose and Ahmose-Nefertari. Third in line to throne, but brothers die after not ruling long (or at all?) o 21 year reign. Great royal wife = sister, Ahmose-Meritamon. o ABSOLUTE DATING FROM HIS REIGN – Dog star, Sirius rose. Papyrus Ebers, Theban medical document that pinpoints the star rising. o Military - Dominated Nubia (see Ahmose son of Ibana) and the Nile Delta. Probably never went to S-P. Cracks people’s heads in war.  Ahmose Pen-Nekhbet: battle at Kehek (NW Libya?) o Reopened mines in the Sinai. Reinstated control in the Oases. o Rebuilt neglected temples in UE  Focus on Karnak, though. o Alabaster Chapel at Karnak (image!)  ON TEST: Ineni = architect. (super important!)  Stopping place for statue when it leaves temple and goes visiting. Inspired by white chapel of Senusret III. o Trend-setting mortuary design o After death, deified (like mom) as patron of Deir el-Medina.  Ineni – architect under Amenhotep I, T1, T2, Hatshepsut, and T3. o SUPER IMPORTANT. Very high status at Egyptian court. o Skilled at getting the will of the king done in beautiful ways. Alabaster shrine.  Deir el-Medina o ON TEST: this is one of the most important sources for the life of everyday people in the NK. o Temple of Hathor, later turned into Christian church. o Walled, planned settlement. Guarded.  People who lived here were artisans, craftsmen, etc. Educated and trained. Paid well by state. NOT average Egyptians. o Stela of deified Amenhotep and Ahmose-Nefertari. Worshipped as gods. o Gorgeous tombs. Have access to supplies and religious texts, use it to decorate their own tombs. o Medical care. Aspect of magic in it. Prosthetics (e.g. toe). So good doctors working here. Including a specialist in scorpion stings. o First recorded strike in human history from here during Ramses I. o Sordid details of love lives. o ON TEST: Paneb. Evil dude.  Thutmose I o Son of Amenhotep I and Senseneb (non-royal). Wife: Ahmose. Only kid by Ahmose that survives is Hatshepsut. By Mutnofret, has Thutmose 2. o Military man  Nubia.  Destruction of Kerma (capitol of Kush). Takes one prince as prisoner.  Carchemish and the Naharin (Mitanni) – Syrian territory.  Elephant hunting on the Euphrates. First king to reach here. o Building program – ambitious.  Karnak – most construction. Added two pylons and outer walls. Hyperstyle hall – important part of temples from now on.  Huge statues of himself in Osirid (wrapped) form. Obelisks.  Tons of building elsewhere, too.  Stela (image!). Split in half. Each half represents UE or LE. BALANCE AND HARMONY. o Funerary architecture  First buried in Valley of the Kings. Hatshepsut expands his tomb and is buried with him. Then T3 removed him and puts him in new tomb T3 built for him.  Thutmose II o Ruled 1-3 years. Married to Hatshepsut. Kids: Neferure, Thutmose III. o Military action in Nubia. Building, military, physical presence. Sehel stela. o Built at temple of Ahmose in Abydos. o No mortuary temple or tomb. Memorial Chapel at Thebes built by T3 for him. But have his mummy. Probably died young of disease.  Hatshepsut o Reigns 22 years. o Starts as princess, married to T2. Regent to T3 Transitions to kingship – 3-6 years. o Inscription at Aswan – mining for granite for obelisks. GIFT FOR AMUN. Bribes to priests? Inscriptions emphasize her power. NOT king yet. o Inscription from temple of Hathor in Sinai. Has prenomen/throne name. Maatkare. But still God’s Wife of Amun. Transition period. o Karnak Block – female dress, Atef-crown. Now king of UE and LE and newly Mistress of the Two Lands, Maatkare. IMPORTANT: WOMEN’S DRESS, but full trappings of kingship. o Military: Nubia – limited military engagement. Police actions more than wars. Minoans, Mycenaens, Greek places (called Khetfiu) – trade?  Peaceful reign. o Building campaigns  Obelisks from Aswan. Precinct of Mut at Karnak, pylon.  Red chapel at Karnak (image!) Opet Festival (Amun goes travelling – v. NK) and Beautiful Feast of the Valley. Red granite. Unique. Both H and T3 depicted.  Temple of Pakhet (Speos Artemidos – Greek). Pakhet a combination goddess. Bast and Sekhmet important feline goddesses. Temple is H showing her rule as king – maintaining temples and cults. Here, says she rebuilt temples neglected by Hyksos. o Temple at Deir el Bahari = “most sacred of sacred places.”  Wonder of architecture. Valley temple and causeway. Pylons that lead into large open court with pools. Oasis. Myrrh trees from Punt.  Wearing kingship symbols – short kilt, fake beard, headdress, etc. Ka behind her (male).  Re-established trade links with Punt. Lead to wealth in E. Mentioned along with “land of the god.” Have exotic goods like MYRRH, gold, ivory, eye paint, ebony, herbs, incense, electrum, fauna, people.  Hatshepsut as sphinx, crushing enemies. Divine birth story (first pregnant woman in Egyptian art; Egyptian sex = holding hands, sometimes lettuce is involved). Coronation story.  Hathor and Anubis = gods of the site.  MOST IMPORTANT SCENE: Hathor feeding Hatshepsut – H is suckling from the goddess. Link to throne. (image!) o Death – buried, then her body was removed. Found her canopic box. Inside – tooth and organs. Her tooth? If so, have her body. Had diabetes, arthritis, v. bad teeth. Died of bone cancer. Very obese.  Senenmut, High Steward of the King o Born to illiterate parents. Worked his way up. Unmarried. o Two tombs. ASTRONOMICAL CEILING. Earliest of its kind. o Vernacular art – king and someone else having sex. H and S? o Fell out of favour. Unsure why. Tomb destroyed. By H?  Thutmose III o 54 year reign (co-regency 21 years) o One of greatest military leaders in Egyptian history. Egypt’s Napoleon.  17 campaigns in 20 years. Captured 350 towns and cities.  Armant stele – first campaign. Against king of Kadesh. Battle of Megiddo. Largest of his campaigns, famous for it. This is the going-through-valley thing. Surprises king, crushes army. TONS of spoils of war. Many chariots, horses, princes.  Tribute from Assyrian, Babylonian, and Hittite kings (NOT Mitanni – Naharin). Become vassal states.  Palestine: three goals. Get back Levant, get access to the coast and ports, stop Mitanni influence. But also gets rich off of these places. Mitanni have glass – Egyptians learn from them. o Tomb of Amenemheb – Important. talks about going on campaign with T3. Esp against Mitanni (Naharin), conquered. Elephant hunt, Amenemheb saves him. Also serves under Amenhotep II. o Djehuty – Taking of Joppa. Told to punish them for disloyalty. This is the soldiers-in-sacks story. Is it true? o Royal women of T3:  Neferure. Royal wife? Died ~ same time H did.  Sitiah. Great royal wife, god’s wife of Amun. Non-royal. Daughter of royal nurse (tutor). Son: Amenemhat, dies before T3.  Merytra. Great royal wife, god’s wife of Amun. Mother of Amenhotep II. High priestess, non-royal. Daughter Merytamun.  Nebetta. Loved by T3.  3 Asiatic wives. o Building program  Karnak. Rebuilt T1’s hypostyle hall. Dismantled H’s red chapel. Pylons. Wall around central chapel. JUBILEE HALL. Obelisk (Rome) – only ONE, and huge. Also, Cleopatra’s Needle (London, NY – from Heliopolis).  Temple at Deir el-Bahari.  Mortuary temple (destroyed now). o End of reign – co-regency (2 years) and desecration of H.  Amduat – underworld. 12 hours. Sunset to sunrise.  Amenhotep II o 30 year reign. Raised in Memphis, not Thebes (wasn’t 1 for throne). o Focus on mom (Merytre), then sister, not on wives. o Thinks he’s superamazing. Brags a lot. Chariot racing, shooting, etc. o Building  Karnak – white stone Amenhotep Shrine. Not grand. Pavilion for sed-festival (solar cult, emphasizing his jubilee).  Giza – worship of Hor-em-akhet (solar god). Start of cult of worship here. Built statue of himself that sat under the chin of the sphinx. o Military  Mild campaign to conquer rebellious vassals in year 7.  Big campaign against he Mitanni in Takhsy region in year 9.  Amenemheb (recall from T3). Seven chiefs taken back, hung on wall at Thebes, one hung in Napata. As an example to the population.  LOT of plunder. Gold, copper, chariots, horses. Captives – mass deportation (100 000).  Mitanni and peace – give tribute after this. EVIDENCE FROM THE HYPOSTYLE HALL at Karnak (imp- ties to T3). o Tomb – this is where the royal mummy cache was found. 17 royals. To save them from tomb robbers.  Thutmose IV o Son of Amenhotep II and Tiaa (non-royal). Probably not eldest. o Inherits the throne in weird way. From Dream Stele (at sphinx at Giza). Seems to be usurper. No important tutor, etc. Goes back and changes history by giving mom title of great royal wife. o Konosso Stele – Nubian uprising in year 8. Limited action to protect gold-mine access. o Marries Mitanni princess (asked for one to marry 7 times). Cementing peace between Egypt and Mitanni. o Karnak – builds alabaster chapel. Small, but unique. Also builds Peristyle hall. SPECIAL – for everyday Egyptians to pray to gods. Weren’t allowed in most temples. Built just for them. o 10 year reign. Body moved to A2’s tomb (one of 17)  Shrivelled body. Died suddenly. In great pain. Dynasty 18  Places o Thebes – home of Amun cult worship. Southern residence of the king. o Memphis – Ptah. Northern residence of the king. Militarily important.  Amenhotep III o Ascends throne young. 2-12 years old? Probably 12. No need for regent? o Son of T4 and minor wife Mutemwia, who only gains status after A3 gets throne. o At this point, the family’s been ruling 300ish years. He reigns 39.  Richest years of Egyptian history. Amenhotep the Magnificent. o Wife’s (Tiye’s) parents = Thuya and Yuya.  Their tomb most intact tomb we’ve found (except Tut)  Many important titles, lots of power.  COFFINS: almond-shaped eyes with thick makeup! Important. Distinctive of Amarna period. o Religion under A3  Sun worship super important.  He is deified. Recall him as a lion statue. Super realistic.  Religion in transition. Solar cults of the north are increasingly important.  A3 = Aten? Hence Akhenaten worshipping his father? o Building under A3  Different agenda than previous pharaohs. Identifying himself with every state god there is, instead of ancestors.  Increasing emphasis on solar cult.  Also wants to out-build everyone before him.  Mansion of Million of Years.  Malkata: The palace of the dazzling Aten. Beautiful, where royal family spent most of their time. Reconstructed ceiling tiles.  Karnak  Destroyed a ton and used the material to build pylons.  Luxor – gives himself a divine birth. Opet cult. Special – links himself to sun and moon. o A3 has massive building projects, and have over 250 statues of him. Almost every museum in the world with a big Egyptian section, and can find a head of his. He’s put a l
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