Exam review based on readings + lec notes from last year

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Important Terms, Concepts or Ideas for NMC review including Essay Topics
Essay Topics:
1) Culture of the Islamic World
2) Arabic Language
3) Islamic views on government
4) Sufism
5) Islamic Art
6) Religious Minorities
7) Traditions and Modernity
TERM
Defintion
Geographical
significance
What? Human geography
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and
HYHQ๎€ƒยณLPDJLQHGยด
Where?
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Eurasian
steppe
๎‚‡๎€ƒDULG๎€ƒRU๎€ƒVHPL-aridยฒ90% ; major rivers/fertile regions: Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Fertile
Crescent), Nile river, Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, Indus river
When?
6th c Arabian peninsula
Why?
human geography greatly influenced by physical geographyยฒthe study of the physical
landscape of the earth
Modes of life & social organization
๎‚‡๎€ƒnomadic, agrarian/rural, urban/town-dwelling
๎‚‡๎€ƒVSHFLDO๎€ƒVLWXDWLRQ๎€ƒRI๎€ƒPRXQWDLQ๎€ƒSHRSOHV
๎‚‡๎€ƒW\SHV๎€ƒRI๎€ƒVRFLDO๎€ƒRUJDQL]DWLRQ๎€๎€ƒWULEH๎€๎€ƒFODQ๎€๎€ƒH[WHQGHG๎€ƒSDWULDUFKDO๎€ƒIDPLO\๎€๎€ƒQXFOHDU๎€ƒIDPLO\
Who?
Muhammad and the beginning of the Islamic era
Historical
Setting or
backdrop to
rise of Islamic
Era
What? Backdrop to rise of Islamic Era:
Before the rise of Islam, two rival empires were on the decline and a power vaccum was
created in region.
Where?
Arabian peninsula 6th c.vnot civilizational centre; pastoral nomads; trading centres;
religionsvChristianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, animism/polytheism
-begins in Arabian Peninsula---not center of any civilization, no rivers. But had trade
routes and important trade centers
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-polytheists-believe in many gods
-animistic beliefs: worship trees, rocks, streams etc
-Kabah-pagan shrine
When?
6th c Arabian peninsula
Why? Why rivals? ร†cultural, religious differences... both vying for control of southern
Arabia
Who?
main political entitiesvByzantium (in west, Christian), Sasanian/Persian empire (in east,
Zoroastrian); rivals, on the decline:
2 big Empires
WEST: Byzantine Empire: Greek Orthodox Christianity, Greek Hellenistic
EAST: Persian Empire/Sassanian Empire-Capital: Mesopotamia---civilization--state
religion: Zoroastrianism--pluralistic religion--light vs darkness--called fire worshippers
-Iranosemitic
-Language-Aramaic
-jews were everywhere in this empire
Muhammad
(d. 632)
What? Islam as a religion and civilization made its entry onto world stage with
career of Prophet Muhammad. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian
Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he united the tribes of Arabia into a single
Muslim religious polity (ummah). while at Medina he established the first Islamic
polity.
-this move from mecca to medina marked new chapter: they no longer a small
oppressed religious group in Mecca; now were an autonomus religio-political
community of Believers that dominted medina
Where?
born Mecca, clan of Hashim, tribe of Quraysh,
-to escape o escape persecution by the Meccan Tribes, Muhammad and his
followers migrated to Medina in the year 622 (Hijra: migration)
When?
Around 610 he started having divine revelations from god, came to accept role as
messenger of God, wrote them down Quran (eternal speech word of God)
-622 Hijra
Why? to escape persecution in Mecca and establish Ummah, and expansion
Who?
Messenger of God. founder of Islam,prophet
as prophetv๎‚šZ๎€ž๎€ƒ^๎‚๎€ž๎€‚o_๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ๎‚‰๎‚Œ}๎‚‰Z๎€ž๎‚š]๎€๎€ƒZ]๎‚๎‚š}๎‚Œร‡V๎€ƒD๎€ž๎‚๎‚๎€žvP๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ'}๎€šV๎€ƒ๎‚Œ๎€ž๎€๎€ž]ร€๎€ž๎‚๎€ƒ๎€š]ร€]v๎€ž๎€ƒ๎‚Œ๎€žร€๎€žo๎€‚๎‚š]}v๎€ƒ
]v(}๎‚Œu๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ๎‚šZ๎€ž๎€ƒYยต๎‚Œ[๎€‚v๎€ƒ~]v๎€ƒArabic language); message is monotheism
{๎€ƒ๎€‚๎‚๎€ƒ๎‚Œ๎€ž๎€๎€žovattack against polytheism of Meccan elite; leaves for Medina 622 CE (=1 AH)
{๎€ƒ๎€‚๎‚๎€ƒ๎‚๎‚š๎€‚๎‚š๎€ž๎‚u๎€‚vvcreates religio-political community; eliminates opposition by means of
force and
diplomacy; use of nomadic tribal ๎‚š๎‚Œ}}๎‚‰๎‚V๎€ƒ๎‚š๎€‚l๎€ž๎‚๎€ƒ}ร€๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ƒ<๎€‚Z๎€๎€‚๎€ƒ]v๎€ƒD๎€ž๎€๎€๎€‚
Muhajirun: believers who emigrated with him
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After his Death
-Successors handpicked from family
-Caliphs represent him -
-Movement out of Arabian Peninsula and into Persian Empire
-637 capture of the Sasanian capital ruler flees to the East
Ansar: helpers U๎€ƒDยตZ๎€‚uu๎€‚๎€š[๎‚๎€ƒ(]๎‚Œ๎‚๎‚š๎€ƒ(}oo}ร๎€ž๎‚Œ๎‚๎€ƒ]v๎€ƒD๎€ž๎€š]v๎€‚๎€ƒรZ}๎€ƒ]vร€]๎‚š๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒZ]u๎€ƒ
Ridda wars
What?
$IWHU๎€ƒ3URSKHWK๎€ƒGHDWK๎€๎€ƒSHRSOH๎€ƒZHUH๎€ƒOLNH๎€ƒRK๎€ƒZH๎€ƒGRQยถW๎€ƒRZH๎€ƒX๎€ƒWD[HV๎€ƒDQ\PRUH๎€๎€ƒVRPH๎€ƒFODLPHG๎€ƒWR๎€ƒ
be prophets...upheaval confusion
-so in response Abu Bakr sent armed bands of believers to the main centers of opposition
in Arabia..gained more followers with force and defeated False prophets like Yamama and
Musaylima
Where?
Arabian Peninsula, and into Sasanian and Byzantine empires
When?
-by 634 Abu Bakr and believers of Medina had brought all of Arabian peninsula under
their control
Why?
5LGGD๎€ƒ:DUVยถ๎€ƒceaseless military activity lead to mobilization of standing army, mass
allies,..... which lead them to the steps of Sasanian empire and Byzantine
because:
-emergence of Arabia as a state, military potential of Arabian pop. allowed them
to penetrate empires and their territories
Who?
Abu akr and the believers of Medina, second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab
Islamic
Caliphal
Empires
successors of Muhammad called khalifa ~E๎€ƒ๎€œvPo]๎‚Z๎€ƒ๎€๎€‚o]๎‚‰Z๎ฟU๎€ƒu๎€ž๎€‚v๎‚๎€ƒ^ร€]๎€๎€žP๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€žv๎‚š_
{๎€ƒ๎‚‰๎‚Œ}P๎‚Œ๎€ž๎‚๎‚]ร€๎€ž๎€ƒu}ร€๎€žu๎€žv๎‚š๎€ƒ}ยต๎‚š๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ๎€„๎‚Œ๎€‚๎€]๎€‚v๎€ƒ๎‚‰๎€žv]v๎‚ยตo๎€‚
{๎€ƒK๎‚Œ๎‚šZ}๎€š}ร†๎€ƒ}๎‚Œ๎€ƒ^Z]PZ๎‚šoร‡-Pยต]๎€š๎€ž๎€š_๎€ƒ๎€๎€‚o]๎‚‰Z๎‚๎€ƒ~รฒรฏรฎt61)vcapital Medina (Arabia); local Arab elite
{๎€ƒUmayyads (661t750)vcapital Damascus (Syria); Arab tribal kingdom
{๎€ƒAbbasids (750t1258)vcapital Baghdad (Mesopotamia/s. Iraq); Persian-influenced empire
{๎€ƒZ]PZ๎‚‰}]v๎‚š๎€ƒรด๎‚šZ-9th centuries (caliph Harun al-Rashid)
{๎€ƒ๎€š๎€žร€๎€žo}๎‚‰u๎€žv๎‚š๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒl๎€žร‡๎€ƒ]v๎‚๎‚š]๎‚šยต๎‚š]}v๎‚๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ๎€žu๎‚‰]๎‚Œ๎€ž๎€ƒ~๎€‚๎‚Œuร‡U๎€ƒ๎€ยต๎‚Œ๎€ž๎€‚ยตcracy, ideology)
{๎€ƒ]u๎‚‰}๎‚Œ๎‚š๎€‚v๎€๎€ž๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒdยต๎‚Œl]๎€๎€ƒ๎€žo๎€žu๎€žv๎‚š๎€ƒ]v๎€ƒ๎‚šZ๎€ž๎€ƒu]o]๎‚š๎€‚๎‚Œร‡
{๎€ƒ๎‚Œ]๎‚๎€ž๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒ]v๎€š๎€ž๎‚‰๎€žv๎€š๎€žv๎‚š๎€ƒ}๎‚Œ๎€ƒ๎‚๎€žu]-independent dynastic states 10th c. (e.g., Samanids, Buyids,
Ghaznavids, Seljuksvin Central Asia, Iran; Umayyids in Spain; Fatimids in Egypt)
{๎€ƒ๎€‘๎€‚PZ๎€š๎€‚๎€š๎€ƒ๎€š๎€ž๎‚๎‚š๎‚Œ}ร‡๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒby Mongols 1258, caliph executed
Umayyads
Took part in second civil war (680-92) Umayyads vs The partisans of Ali
-huu๎€‚ร‡๎€‚๎€š๎€ƒ๎‚o๎€‚ยตPZ๎‚š๎€ž๎‚Œ๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒ๎€„o][๎‚๎€ƒ๎‚}v
Shiites believed only members of the prophets family could be caliphs and did not accept
๎€‚ยต๎‚šZ}๎‚Œ]๎‚šร‡๎€ƒ}(๎€ƒยตuu๎€‚ร‡ยต๎€š๎€ƒ๎€๎€‚o]๎‚‰ZXXX๎‚Œ๎€‚oo]๎€ž๎€š๎€ƒ๎€‚๎‚Œ}ยตv๎€š๎€ƒ๎€„o][๎‚๎€ƒ๎‚}v๎€ƒ๎€‚v๎€š๎€ƒ๎€š๎€ž๎‚๎€๎€žv๎€š๎€‚v๎‚š๎‚๎€ƒ
-2nd civil war: crystallises beginning of split of Shiite
Ali's son Hassan Killed BIG in Shiite history
-culture of martyrdom beginning of theological differences
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Document Summary

Important terms, concepts or ideas for nmc review including essay topics. Essay topics: culture of the islamic world, arabic language, islamic views on government, sufism, islamic art, religious minorities, traditions and modernity. W,7/47802-arid90% ; major rivers/fertile regions: tigris and euphrates rivers (fertile. Crescent), nile river, amu darya and syr darya rivers, indus river. Why? human geography greatly influenced by physical geographythe study of the physical landscape of the earth. Muhammad and the beginning of the islamic era. Before the rise of islam, two rival empires were on the decline and a power vaccum was created in region. Arabian peninsula 6th c. lnot civilizational centre; pastoral nomads; trading centres; religionslchristianity, judaism, zoroastrianism, animism/polytheism. Begins in arabian peninsula---not center of any civilization, no rivers. But had trade routes and important trade centers www. notesolution. com. cultural, religious differences both vying for control of southern. Who? main political entitieslbyzantium (in west, christian), sasanian/persian empire (in east, West: byzantine empire: greek orthodox christianity, greek hellenistic.

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