Exam review based on readings + lec notes from last year

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Maria Subtelny

Important Terms, Concepts or Ideas for NMC review including Essay Topics Essay Topics: 1) Culture of the Islamic World 2) Arabic Language 3) Islamic views on government 4) Sufism 5) Islamic Art 6) Religious Minorities 7) Traditions and Modernity TERM Defintion Geographical What? Human geography significance 9K089:/\41545:O,9L435,990738,3/574.088089K,98K,50K:2,3,.9L;L9\,3/L3907,.9L43 .,3-0KL8947L.,O54OL9L.,O.:O9:7,O0.4342L.:7-,3health-related, education-related, and 0;03L2,JL30/ Where? 2,L3J04J7,5KL.,O70JL4387,-L,3503L38:O,3,94OL,35O,90,:,7,3L,35O,90,: Eurasian steppe ,7L/47802L-arid90% ; major rivers/fertile regions: Tigris and Euphrates rivers (Fertile Crescent), Nile river, Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, Indus river When? 6th c Arabian peninsula Why? human geography greatly influenced by physical geographythe study of the physical landscape of the earth Modes of life & social organization nomadic, agrarian/rural, urban/town-dwelling 850.L,O8L9:,9L434124:39,L35045O08 9\5084184.L,O47J,3L],9L4397L-0.O,30[903/0/5,97L,7.K,O1,2LO\3:.O0,71,2LO\ Who? Muhammad and the beginning of the Islamic era Historical What? Backdrop to rise of Islamic Era: Setting or Before the rise of Islam, two rival empires were on the decline and a power vaccum was backdrop to created in region. rise of Islamic Era Where? Arabian peninsula 6th c.Lnot civilizational centre; pastoral nomads; trading centres; religionsLChristianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, animism/polytheism -begins in Arabian Peninsula---not center of any civilization, no rivers. But had trade routes and important trade centers www.notesolution.com -polytheists-believe in many gods -animistic beliefs: worship trees, rocks, streams etc -Kabah-pagan shrine When? 6th c Arabian peninsula Why? Why rivals? cultural, religious differences... both vying for control of southern Arabia Who? main political entitiesLByzantium (in west, Christian), Sasanian/Persian empire (in east, Zoroastrian); rivals, on the decline: 2 big Empires WEST: Byzantine Empire: Greek Orthodox Christianity, Greek Hellenistic EAST: Persian Empire/Sassanian Empire-Capital: Mesopotamia---civilization--state religion: Zoroastrianism--pluralistic religion--light vs darkness--called fire worshippers -Iranosemitic -Language-Aramaic -jews were everywhere in this empire Muhammad What? Islam as a religion and civilization made its entry onto world stage with (d. 632) career of Prophet Muhammad. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam; and he united the tribes of Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity (ummah). while at Medina he established the first Islamic polity. -this move from mecca to medina marked new chapter: they no longer a small oppressed religious group in Mecca; now were an autonomus religio-political community of Believers that dominted medina Where? born Mecca, clan of Hashim, tribe of Quraysh, -to escapeo escape persecution by the Meccan Tribes, Muhammad and his followers migrated to Medina in the year 622 (Hijra: migration) When? Around 610 he started having divine revelations from god, came to accept role as messenger of God, wrote them down Quran (eternal speech word of God) -622 Hijra Why? to escape persecution in Mecca and establish Ummah, and expansion Who? Messenger of God. founder of Islam,prophet as prophetLZ^Zo_}}Z] Z]Z}8,ZZL2}}8 ]Z]]Lo]}L ]L}K}Z;[L~]LArabic language); message is monotheism {ZoLattack against polytheism of Meccan elite; leaves for Medina 622 CE (=1 AH) {ZZZKLLcreates religio-political community; eliminates opposition by means of force and diplomacy; use of nomadic tribal }}Z8lZ}Z]L, Muhajirun: believers who emigrated with him www.notesolution.com Ansar: helpers 7,ZKK[Z]Z}oo}Z]L,]LZ}]L]Z]K After his Death -Successors handpicked from family -Caliphs represent him - -Movement out of Arabian Peninsula and into Persian Empire -637 capture of the Sasanian capital ruler flees to the East Ridda wars What? 1907!745K09K/0,9K5045O0Z070OLN04KZ0/4394Z0:9,[08,3\24708420.O,L20/94 be prophets...upheaval confusion -so in response Abu Bakr sent armed bands of believers to the main centers of opposition in Arabia..gained more followers with force and defeated False prophets like Yamama and Musaylima Where? Arabian Peninsula, and into Sasanian and Byzantine empires When? -by 634 Abu Bakr and believers of Medina had brought all of Arabian peninsula under their control Why? #L//,:,78ceaseless military activity lead to mobilization of standing army, mass allies,..... which lead them to the steps of Sasanian empire and Byzantine because: -emergence of Arabia as a state, military potential of Arabian pop. allowed them to penetrate empires and their territories Who? Abu akr and the believers of Medina, second Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab Islamic successors of Muhammad called khalifa ~-L2o]ZZ o]Z7KLZ^] 2L_ Caliphal {}2ZZ]K}KL}}]LL]LZo Empires {KZ}}}^Z]2Zo-2]_ o]ZZ~J61)Lcapital Medina (Arabia); local Arab elite {Umayyads (661J750)Lcapital Damascus (Syria); Arab tribal kingdom {Abbasids (750J1258)Lcapital Baghdad (Mesopotamia/s. Iraq); Persian-influenced empire {Z]2Z}]LZ-9th centuries (caliph Harun al-Rashid) {o}KL}l]LZ]]}LZ}K]~K7cracy, ideology) {]K}L }@l] oKL]LZK]o] {]Z}]LLL}ZK]-independent dynastic states 10th c. (e.g., Samanids, Buyids, Ghaznavids, SeljuksLin Central Asia, Iran; Umayyids in Spain; Fatimids in Egypt) {2ZZ}by Mongols 1258, caliph executed Umayyads Took part in second civil war (680-92) Umayyads vs The partisans of Ali -DKKZo2Zo][ZZ}L Shiites believed only members of the prophets family could be caliphs and did not accept Z}]}KK o]Z:::oo]}Lo][ZZ}LLZ LLZ -2nd civil war: crystallises beginning of split of Shiite Ali's son Hassan Killed BIG in Shiite history -culture of martyrdom beginning of theological differences www.notesolution.com Shia vs Sunni -Umayyad dynasty overthrown by Abbasid family in 750 C.E Abbasids Where? Baghdad capital of Abbasid empire When? 700-950 Why? - period 700-950 important developments in key institutions of the caliphate and Muslim empire such as army and imperial bureaucracy -early Abbasid armies relied on Khurasan (settlers of Arabic origin) who the first Abbasids had ridden to power -
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