NMC 344 Final Exam Study Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
M.A.Pouls- Wegner

• Best written sources of Egyptian history: o Manetho  Greek – writing a history of Egypt for Greek audiences  Records in chronological order  Important for the division of dynasties  His history only survives for us in excerpts quoted by other authors o Herodotus  Recorded stories told to him  Interested in learning about the culture o Palermo Stone th  Inscribed in the 5 dynasty  Written to record the level of the Nile and taxation rates • But also records king and important event of the year o Turin Canon  Hieratic script  Very illegible – got mangled during transport after discovery  Lists king in order, in dynasties, and gives lengths of each reign th  Composed in 19 dynasty o Kings Lists th  From the 19 dynasty • Gives list of rulers in chronological order up to the 19 dynasty  Written on temple walls  Leaves out significant rulers that were not seen as legitimate  Includes: Abydos Kinglist, Saqqara Tablet and Table of Karnak o Annals and Daybooks  Accidental survivals  Come from cases where original papyrus texts were recopied in stone temples Middle Kingdom o Foreign Relations  Lower Nubia: • Lower Nubia called “Wawat” by the Egyptians, starts at the First Cataract • Access to mineral resources = Egyptian interest in the area! • Egyptian Activity: o Nothing large scale prior to the Middle Kingdom o At the start of the Middle Kingdom, Egypt expends a lot of resources to gain a permanent hold o Mentuhotep:  Annexed Wawat and the Oasis  Another culture in the Lower Nubian region at the same time: • C-Group Culture • Indigenous tribe • Clearly trading with Egyptians o Egyptian objects found in tombs indicate trade and exchange • Presumably a kind of reciprocal trading relationship  Senwosret I • Real concerted effort to establish Egyptian control in the region • Year 5 of his reign: establishment of Egyptian fortification site at Buhen – “Plains-Type” Fortresses o Designed to be militarily defensible o Back lies against the Nile o Restrictive gateway entrance o Rectangular plan  Senwosret III • Tried to push further, beyond the Second Cataract • Semna-Type Fortresses, clustered around the Semna Gorge o Ex. Euronarti Fort o Doesn’t have rectangular perimeter o Takes advantage of the slope of the hill o BUT, still a military fortification o Have store rooms & separate units for housing soldiers and administration  Store rooms held imported supplies for soldiers o Basically: massive investment on the part of the Egyptians  Why such heavy fortifications? • Lower Nubia relatively friendly… no evidence of hostility. Why would they need these massive fortifications? • Perceived threat of roaming tribes? BUT, they still wouldn’t have required such massive fortifications.  Execration Texts: • Lists potential threats o Either of hostile entities or areas • Idea is that you can neutralize threat by breaking object on which the threat is written • Some of the place names found are known to have been in Nubia o Clearly would have been a threat  Semna Dispatches: • Official dispatches from Senwosret III, from the Semna gorge • Second cataract was thought of as the frontier o Deliberate Egyptian attempts to fortify o Wanted to be able to control traffic (specifically Nubian movement from the south) o Possibly to do with imposing customs (collection and redistribution of taxes, customs duty) • Evidence for a series of surveillance posts in Semna gorge with visual contact with one another • Reveal interaction between Egyptian garrisons and the pastoral tribes in the eastern desert o Also from Lower Nubia, but different from the C-Group  They roam around, no settled communities  Some friendly, some hostile  Probably a whole network of different tribes  Just South of Second Cataract: Batn el Hagar • “Belly of Rock”, barren region • No settlements  Upper Nubia • Egyptians called this region “Kush” • Located South of the Second Cataract • Very complex society o strong enough, organized enough etc. to become a major military threat! • Kerma Culture: located just above the Third Cataract o Cultural phases of Upper Nubia o In the Second Intermediate Period: Classic Kerma  Real flourishing in art, urbanism, massive cities, specialized luxury goods, etc. o In the Middle Kingdom, Upper Nubia was more advanced than Egypt in terms of population o Clearly an urban city o Fortifications o East of city is large acropolis  Deffufa o King had significant control in Kerma o Known for ivory inlays in boxes o Unique burial practise – buried dead in beads o Incredibly wealthy royal tombs  Shows that kings clearly had access to incredible resources and major hold on society • Kerma was likely seen as a major threat to the Egyptians. Probably the cause for the major Egyptian fortifications. • Foreign Relations with the Levant Syro-Palestine o Middle Bronze Age I Sites  Contemporary with the First Intermediate Period/Early 12 Dynasty in Egypt  Shows decline in urban life with new settlement patterns  Story of Sinuhe th • Set in the beginning of the 12 dynasty • Sinuhe was an official at the court of Amenemhet I o Fled when Amenemhet I was assassinated o Travelled to Syro-Palestine, befriended local chief, lives his life there… gets old, worries about afterlife, goes back to Egypt where, contrary to his fears, everything is fine and he gets proper burial. o Story suggests Egyptian fortifications were intended to mark boundaries  Sense that Syro-Palestinian nomads were friendly to Egyptian interests. o Middle Bronze Age II Sites  Contemporary with Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period  Area becoming urbanized once again  Records of Egyptian officials recording military activity against some of these cities  Duckbill Axe! • Innovation in technology • Used in warfare • Hallmark of this time period/these sites o Execration Texts  Place names in Syro-Palestine also • Egyptian Fortification: o “Walls of the Ruler”  Deliberate state policy  Fortress that controlled trade and access to North Sinai  There was no geomorphological feature, so they built one  Dates from the reign of Amenemhet I  Sinai: • Egyptian neighbors to the right • Wealth in turquoise and copper • Probably a symbiotic relationship o “Ways of Horus”  Natural transit corridor that became a heavily used trade route  Egypt maintained control through fortified outposts  Senwosret III • Interest in ensuring Egyptian interest was preserved with the trade routes • Byblos o Farther north o Important trade partner to Egypt because of major timber resources o Evidence of good relations th • End of 12 Dynasty o Political instability! o Asiatics moving into the Delta Region o Foreign relations break down o In Nubia, the garrisons and fortress towns were no longer solely manned by Egyptians o This all led to breakdown of the Middle Kingdom and start of the Second Intermediate Period • Asiatics Living in Egypt during the Middle Kingdom o Already by the Middle Kingdom, there were a significant number of Asiatics in Egypt  Some to trade commoditites  Some as prisoners of war (from Senwosret III)  Some associated with elite culture in Egypt because they were highly specialized craftsmen • Colorful garments, as well as new weaving techniques o Archaeological evidence  Evidence of foreign cultural materials in burials  Weaving technology found at settlements • Suggest advances in technology • New: vertical loom! (as opposed to the horizontal loom) th th • Middle Kingdom goes from Mentuhotep (11 dynasty), through to the end of the 12 dynasty IN ALL PARTS OF EGYPT o In UPPER EGYPT: continues into the 13 Dynasty th o In LOWER EGYPT: breaks continuity – rise of the 14 dynasty Second Intermediate Period o Evidence: Kings Lists and Turin Canon • Fourteenth Dynasty o “Asiatic”  West Semitic o Based in the Delta o Peaceful relations with the 13 Dynasty  Mutual trade agreements • Fifteenth Dynasty o Rulers initially used title “Hyksos” o Different from Asiatics  New artifact types in this period – believed to be from the Hyksos o Not clear how they came to power  Full-scale military invasion or peaceful takeover • Probably a bit of both o They took over the site of Avaris (Tell el-Dab’a), and established it as the capital o Names of rulers show gradual assimilation to Egyptian culture  By 5 king, Khaya, adoption of full Egyptian royal titular o Tell el-Yahudiya Ware  Main characteristic feature: • Decorative pattern with outside having been polished with a hard stone • Before clay dries, incised with marks that are later filled with white chalk  Pottery is associated with the Hyksos rulers • Marks a major cultural transition  Occurs in conjunction with the Scarab Seals which have names of Hyksos rulers on them. o Tell el-Yahudiya  In the Eastern Delta • Major corridor of transit to Northern Sinai and into Syro-Palestine  early on, already an association of the site with Jewish culture  military defensive characteristic – but different from Egyptian  different burials • incorporation of main burial chamber PLUS an additional chamber. Also, graves included imported weapons • Tell el-Dab’a o Hyksos capital o Located on Pelusiac branch of Nile o Settlement area expanded in the 14 dynasty  More Syro-Palestinian pottery  Change in tombs (side chamber – non Egyptian, also: burial donkeys) • Tombs also adjacent to house structures th  Evidence in 14 Dynasty that character of site is changing with more Syro-Palestinian influence on culture, pottery and weapons o Even in later 13 dynasty, rise of warrior culture in Syro-Palestinian tombs  WEAPONS N SHIT! o Sometimes burials included more than one body  Very unusual th o 15 Dynasty Expansion  Many areas undergoing building expansion! • Including temple to Seth o God was particularly important to Hyksos rulers, probably due to correspondence with one of their native deities • Increased building activity of palaces and temples o After Hyksos were expelled, new fortified palatial structure was built after the structures from before were raised. o 18 Dynasty palace structures  Lots of evidence of warfare  Possibly evidence of Minoans in Tell el-Dab’a • Similarities in art! Possibly inspired by contact. • Excavations at Akrotiri on Crete show possible correlation  Basically: increasing recognition that these cultures were all in close contact with one another • The Abydos Dynasty o In the 2 intermediate period, we get evidence of royal names in cartouches that were not listed in the Turin Canon  Another dynasty suggested: The Abydos Dynasty • A local dynasty of rulers based at Abydos in the later Second Intermediate Period o Based off of objects found with rulers’ names o A lot of significance with kingship and the cult of royal ancestors o Beautifully decorated tombs • Later Second Intermediate Period th th o 15 dynasty succeeded in taking over all of Egypt, defeating the 16 Dynasty (Thebes) th o 15 dynasty rulers maintained control for a short period of time o 17 dynasty arose in Thebes, because of a group of local Theban elites. Consolidated control over southernmost Egypt  In conflict with the 15 dynasty, pushing them northwards • End of the Second Intermediate Period th o 15 dynasty king, Apepy, established formal boundary between area of Dynasty 15 and 17 th th o 17 dynasty embarked on program of temple restoration, while 15 dynasty built temple for Seth o War breaks out between Dynasty 15 and 17  Results in the 15 dynasty expulsion from Egypt o Drah Abu el-Bag’a  Located at Thebes th  Seems to be the place where 17 dynasty Theban rulers were buried • Relatively small pyramid tombs • Cache of Royal Mummies discovered in tomb of Queen Inhapy at Deir el-Bahri • Seqenenre Tao II o Mummified body found in one of the caches o Cranium had numerous bad wounds, one of which can be traced to a duckbill axe th th o Example of the clash between 15 and 17 dynasties • Kamose o Successor of Seqenenre Tao II o Left inscriptions about expulsion of Hyksos (Kamose Stele) th th  Most likely fictional, but tells of conflict between 15 and 17 dynasties – talks about Seqenenre and Hyksos  Tells us that Thebes was worrying about Kush in the South and Hyksos in the north, who were communicating through the western desert. They were entrapping Egyptian Thebes and trying to take over.  Tells us that Amun has an explicit role in the campaign  Stele describes destruction of various Asiatic Towns • Ahmose I o Second king of 17 dynasty, probably Kamose’s son o Main information comes from Ahmose, son of Ebana  Soldier who served under king Ahmose  Biographical inscription describes siege and destruction of Avaris • Of massive campaign to expel the Hyksos of Egypt to Syro- Palestine o Mummy found in one of the caches o Mortuary Temple Complex  One of the last pyramids built in Egypt  Dramatic military scenes in tomb, uncommon for the time  Evidence of Hyksos chariots (new innovation)  He had second mortuary temple built • Ruling at Thebes, but wanted to associate himself with ancestors so had another one built at Abydos  Shrine to his grandmother, Tetisheri • Her shrine was also a pyramid • Cult place associated with pyramid had a small stele of text that tells story of Ahmose chilling with his wife, talking about memories of his grandmother and his decision to build her a second tomb.  Monument for grandmother, monument for wife, and probably also one for his mother • Importance of royal women o Tomb of Queen Ahhotep had jewelry AND weapons and military awards • Maybe while husbands were off fighting, women would have control over Egypt NEW KINGDOM th • 18 dynasty – reestablishment of centralized rule • Also reentering the kinglist tradition nd o Many rulers of 2 IP not mentioned in king lists  Now rulers were considered to be ruling in accordance with ma’at • New Kingdom o Considered to be an age of empire o Foreign policy becomes expansive both in Nubia to the south and Syro-Palestine to the North o Foreign relations also become more complex o Also the growth and elaboration of extensive trade networks that link Egypt to greater Mediterranean o Egypt itself:  Strong economic base being established • Partly due to exploitation of Nubian goldmines • Vast resources spent to maintain this o Period of most powerful rulers o Unique evidence: The Amarna Letters  On papyrus AND clay tablets, in cuneiform  Record correspondences with Syro-Palestinian states and the Egyptian kingdom  Unique window into all kinds of relationships o “The Duties of the Vizier”  Provides information on the duties of the viziers • One for the north, and one for the south o New Kingdom is time in which art, literature, material culture flourished o Changing characterization of the king  Now called Pharaoh  Idea that he is literally the incarnation of the sun god  King as a product of a human woman and Amon-Re o At this point, major deity is Amon-re  Worshipped at Karnak Temple o Temple institution of Amon-Re gaining power and wealth in the New Kingdom  But leads to potential for problems with so much wealth in control of the temples (and its priests) o Increased interest in the past • Amenhotep I o Son and successor of Ahmose o At least 1 expedition to Nubia o Founded a site in Nubia, likely to secure more gold resources o Records of his reign come from Ahmose, son of Ebana o Established the community of workmen at Thebes, responsible for building the tombs to the kings – Deir el Medina o Amenhotep I as almost an intermediary between normal people and the gods  Evidence of his veneration, even after death. Also with his mother • Thutmose I o Organized Deir el Medina from community into town o Not the son of Amenhotep I, ruled as coregent so there wouldn’t be problems with succession o Married to a daughter of Ahmose (Ahmose Nefertari) o Active military campaigning  Stele claiming he expanded Egypt’s boundaries  Ahmose, son of Ebana, records military campaign in Nubia rd • Extended military control almost to the 3 cataract • Also expeditions to gold-rich areas of the eastern desert • Also expeditions into Syro-Palestine and Levant o Reached banks of Euphrates – able to exert Egyptian influence o Advancements of temple of Amon-Re o Erected an obelisk at Karnak  Would have taken significant resources  Continuation with old traditions o Construction at temple to Horus • Thutmose II o Son of Thutmose I by a lesser wife o Married royal daughter, Hatshepsut, daughter of Thutmose I and queen Ahmose o Had a short reign o Had series of successful campaigns in Syro-Palestine, attested through inscriptions in Southern Egypt and texts from Deir el-Bahri  In Nubia, texts presented as putting down a rebellion o Had one son by Isis, from the royal harem, Thutmose III, designated him as his successor  When Thutmose II died, Thutmose III was still a child so Hatshepsut because a sort of coregent  Biography of Ineni doesn’t show any evidence of turmoil (that Thutmose II was trying to curtail his wife’s power by naming son as successor) • Hatshepsut o Claim to the throne was pretty strong o Genealogical link through ancestry, and marriage o Link to the past when women had significant political power th  Rule of Queens in 18 dynasty o No indication of anything but a peaceful transition from Thutmoses II to Hatshepsut o She eventually took titles of kingship and began to wear the double crown  BUT, clear period of accession… there was iconography representing her as a wife first  Portrayal of her in kings garb, but still an edge of femininity (BOOBS)  Sometimes portrayed in masculine guise o Senenmut – official under Hatshepsut  Evidence for a close relationship o Mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri th  Directly across from temple of Karnak, situated next to founder of 12 dynasty’s tomb • Statement of Hatshepsut beginning a new age of centralized rule  Scenes of voyage to land of Punt • Symbolic significance o Place where Egyptians got incense which was important for ritual o Punt was land of incense, ergo, land of the gods o Coronation Scene  Legitimizes her rule as offspring of Amon-Re o Temple at Speos Artemidos  Text denouncing Hyksos and legitimizing her centralized rule • Relationship between Hatshepsut and Thutmose III o Ruled contemporaneously o Careful destruction of her inscriptions  Couldn’t have two kings at once – needed to restore ma’at  Happened quite late in Thutmose III’s reign • Hatshepsut’s Foreign Relations o Voyage to Punt was important because it gave her a strong link to the centralized times of the Middle Kingdom and Old Kingdom, and also linked to her piety o Military Activity  Seems to have been devoid of any military activity. She was more about internal development while Thutmose III was more about expansion and enterprise  BUT, she still recorded herself like her predecessors, in the role of military ruler  There really isn’t much evidence to characterize her military career • Thutmose III o Created an internal structure at the temple of Karnak  In doing so, walled up one of Hatshepsut’s obelisks (which depicted her being crowned by Amon-Re), and didn’t erase it! o Inscription at Karnak recounts the story of his accession o After assuming sole rulership, he began counting his regnal dates from the death of Thutmose II o He engaged in diplomatic marriages, especially with Syro-Palestine o Had foreign princes come to the Egyptian court to learn in the hopes that, once they assumed rulership at home, they would be friendly to Egypt o Nicknamed “The Napoleon of Egypt”  His Annals (at the temple of Karnak) record his military campaigns  His army commander was Tjanuny  Amon-Re is seen as the force behind the king – new idea that the king acknowledges the god explicitly as the force behind his military activities • Dedicated spoils to Amon-Re’s temple  Campaigned against Megiddo • For not paying taxes • Led to a lengthy siege, and eventually a victory • Then moved more north, campaigning every year for 18 years. Eventually, in year 42, Kadesh fell to Egyptian control  In Syro-Palestine • Dominated to the point where they could collect tribute • Could characterize Egyptian control in this area as an empire  Nubia • Described as punitive in nature o Built extensively in Egypt  Funded by campaigns and a strong Egyptian economy o Gave a lot to the temple of Karnak o Also built other temples at Karnak, including one to Thoth and a festival hall o Recorded inscriptions at Karnak of the interesting things – flora and fauna – that he saw  Function was to show all of the extensive exploits of the king o Built a mortuary temple between those of the 12 dynasty kings and Hatshepsut o Also built a larger mortuary temple  Included a chapel dedicated to Hethor  Mirrored the architectural developments of Hatshepsut o Buried in the Valley of the Kings • Amenhotep II o Depicted as a sportsman o Inscriptions describe him as having superhuman strength o There was an uprising in Syro-Palestine following the death of Thutmose III, which Amenhotep II was able to quell  Captured 7 princes and hung 6 over the walls of the Karnak temple o Represents shift in how chaotic forces outside of Egypt were portrayed  Egypt was in coherence with ma’at, while the outside was chaotic – ideological basis of Egypt o Nature of relations with Syro-Palestine was to maintain control over economy and trade  The towns and cities of Syro-Palestine became increasingly wedged between Egypt to the south with its ongoing demands of commodities and taxes, and the other major powers (Hittites in the North, Babylon in the east) o Seems to have had a fairly peaceful reign  No evidence for violent campaigns after the initial ones in Syro-Palestine o Buried in the Valley of the Kings th • Thutmose IV (4 ) o “Dream Stele”  About his own legitimation  Set up between the paws of the sphinx  Tells the story of the young prince out hunting in the desert of Giza (a sportsman like his father), he falls asleep in the shadow of the sphinx’s head (the rest of the body was covered with sand). The solar god (Re- Horakhti – most venerated form from the Old Kingdom) appeared to him in a dream and promised him kingship if he cleared the sand from around the sphinx o Left very few records  Carried out a Nubian expedition, as well as one in Syro-Palestine • Probably just to maintain Egypt’s control o Mortuary temple in Thebes • Amenhotep III o His mother may have been a Mitanni princess o He had many wives, including foreign princesses  Principal wife was Queen Tiye • She was non-royal, but came from elite parents • A tomb was constructed for her parents in the Valley of the Kings o They were given higher titles once their daughter became principal queen o Reign is characterized by a flowering of the arts  Resulting from influx of gold from the desert o Characterized as a sportsman, like his predecessors o Evidence that he carried out some campaigns early in his reign, but none thereafter  Maybe into Nubia to put down rebellions o Reign was a consolidation of foreign conquest rather than expansion of territory o Issued a lot of commemorative scarabs  Listed major events of his life  It was a way to popularize state accounts of events • A form of distribution to the populace  Describe events such as marriage to Tiye, sporting prowess in hunting lions, digging of Pleasure Lake for Tiye, etc o Extensive building all over Egypt  Renewed cult structures  Lots of energy spent on Karnak  Indications of increasing emphasis on Ra-Horakhti  Architect was called Amenhotep, son of Hapu • Mark of prestige shown in him being allowed to build statues of himself in Karnak • Statues are smaller than contemporary statues of the kings, but larger than other individuals • Responsible for overseeing the construction of the Luxor Temple o Located in Eastern Thebes, not far from Karnak o Seems to have served a special function in celebrating the fusion of the king’s spirit with the power of his royal ancestors o Depictions show the king being mystically united with Amon-Re o Very long reign  Almost 40 years  Celebrated many Jubilee festivals • For this purpose, he built a magnificent complex at the site of Malgata • Symbolic rejuvenation of the king  Built a huge ceremonial lake • Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye would appear at a window of the palace there (their emergence was likened to the sun rising), and would shower gifts among the officials (like showering golden light) o Colossi of Memnon  Marked the position of the mortuary temple of Amenhotep III  Almost directly across the
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