Exam Review - First Semester

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Department
Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
Course
NMC101H1
Professor
Katja Goebs
Semester
Fall

Description
1 GeographyThe Nile flows from south Upper Egypt to the North Lower Egypt aka Delta to South Upper EgyptAswan to Cairo to MediterraneanNot much of Nile inhabitabledivided into Deshret Red Land desert and Kemet Black Land irrigated and sown landnow called EgyptWhite Nile flows through Lake Victoria in Uganda Blue Nile comes from Lake Tana in Ethiopia two meet at Khartoum Annual inundation before Aswan damrainy season in Ethiopia first seen in Aswan and reaches full height at Cairo Course of Nile dug gorge deposited thick layer of rich silt gives valley fertility flooded annually meant no build up of salts new nutrients incoming Natural resourcesstone semiprecious stones metals Import lumber from LebanonByblos is one of Egypts 31 trading partners throughout historyImported goodsLapis lazuli silver gold ivory wild cat skins ostrich eggs2 ChronologyDetermine timeagricultural calendar seasonal Lunar calendar moonfor ritualcultic calendars Astronomical stars and sun for night and day time Royal annalsdocuments count regnal years of kings begin anew with each new kingmeasure cyclical timeThree seasons of 4 months each AkhetInundation July to Nov PeretWinter NovApril ShemuSummer April to July 12 months of 3 weeks of 10 days each365 days per yearKing ListsTable of Karnak from Thutmosis III Dyn 18 Table of Abydos Sety I Dyn 19 Turin Canon from Rameses II Dyn 19 Table of Saqqara from Ramessid PeriodManethoEgyptian priestdivided Egypts history into 30 dynastiesRoyal Annals and InscriptionsPalermo Stone late Predynastic to Dyn 5 Kamose Stela Dyns 17 to 18 Thutmosis IIIs Annals Dyn 18 Tuts Restoration Decree Dyn 18 Merneptahs Israel Stela Dyn 19 Three founders of EgyptMenes OK Mentuhotep IINebhepetre MK and Ahmose NK stndrd Periods in between known as 1 2 and 3 Intermediate Periodsfollows the Late Period GrecoRoman Period finally Muslim conquest Problems with chronologiesincompleteness of sources time keeping regnal years coregencies overlap some reigns dynasties during IPs some rulers left out of king lists ex women foreigners etc3 Prehistoric PeriodsFood gathering to food producingpermits creation of specialists allows more timeMay have borrowed new technology from Western Asia Neolithic Lower EgyptFayyum A Merimde ElOmari Maadi ButoFayyum Aearliest attested Neolithic culture in Egyptstoneflint tools coarse pottery often red bones sea shellsstored wheat barley flaxsome domestication of sheep goat pigs
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