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Near & Middle Eastern Civilizations
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Maria Subtelny

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NMC Terms Abbasids: (750-1258) one of the three caliph empires. Followed the Umayyad Empire. Established its capital in Baghdad. Reached their highpoint around the 8 -9 th th centunder caliph Harem al-Rashid. This empire lead to the invention of many key institutions such as democracies and military (which way influence by the Turkic). This period of time also saw the rise of independent or semi-independent dynastic states. Saw its end when the Mongols destroyed Baghdad and executed the caliph in 1258 Hijra: Refers to the migration of the prophet and his followers to the city of Medina in 622. As the prophet was warned of a plan to assassinate him he fled to the city of Yathrib known today as Medina. Hijra also refers to the Islamic calendar which is based on a lunar system. The migration of the prophet marks the first year of the higri calendar Ahl al-Kitab: Meaning the people of the book and referring to the non-Muslims who adhere to a faith and have a book of prayers. In the Quran Christianity and Judaism are referred to as people of the book because they too recognize the God of Abraham as the one and only God. Muslim rulers and scholars have also included other religions such as Zoroastrianism and Hinduism. In Islam people of the book practice tawhid (monotheism), recognize life after death, judgment, heaven and angels, hell, believe in the same prophet and have similar beliefs regarding the creation. OrthodoxRashidum caliphs: One of the three caliph empires. Was founded after the death of the prophet Mohammad in 632. Medina was its capital and lead to the expansion of Islam through North Africa, Arabian Peninsula and the Iranian highlands. During this empire the religion of Islam became widespread. Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali are the caliphs that governed this empire. Shiva Shiites: The second largest denomination of Islam after Sunni Islam. In contrast to the other schools of thought, Shia Islam holds that Muhammads family and certain Imams (descendents of the prophet) have special spiritual and political rule over the community. Also believe that Ali was the rightful successor of Muhammad and reject the other three Rashidum caliphs. Represent roughly 110 of th the Islam population and live in majority in Iran and Iraq. Shia divides into different branches with the Twelvers being the largest one. Safavids: www.notesolution.com
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